Saint Andrews Twin Flame | From The First Order – The International Center for Missing & Exploited Children

The International Center for Missing & Exploited Children

If there is Nothing to Hide, Why Not Look?

The Board of Directors (Past and Present)





International Center for Missing & Exploited Children granted special status by UN | ICMEC ARCHIVE | AUG 12, 2008

Honorary Board Members (Past and Current) (Many Titles and Positions are Not Current)

Daniel Cardon de Lichtbuer | Former ICMEC Chairman;
Valentina Matvienko | Chairwoman, Federal Council of the Federal Assembly, Russian Federation
Margarida Barroso | Biophysics, Biochemistry, Cell Biology PhD | Wife of the President of the European Commission
Queen Paola | Queen of Belgium
Mrs. Suzanne Mubarak | First Lady of Egypt
Shaikha Sabeeka | Queen of Bahrain
Lalla Meryem | Princess of the Kingdom of Morocco
Bernadette Chirac | Former First Lady of the French Republic
Ernie Allen | ICMEC President and CEO.
Bajrakitiyabha Mahidol | Princess of Thailand
Paola Ruffo di Calabria | The Queen of the Belgians
Silvia Renate Sommerlath | Queen of Sweden
Jolanta Kwasniewska | First Lady of Poland
Marta Sahagún de Fox | First Lady of Mexico
Laura Bush | First Lady of the United States of America
Susanna Agnelli | Foundation IL FARO | Italy
Lyudmila Putin | Wife of the President of the Russian Federation

Board Members (Past and Current) (Many Titles and Positions are Not Current)

Anne-Marie Lizin | Former President of the Belgian Senate
Arnold I. Burns, Founding Chair | Former U.S. Deputy Attorney General
Abraham E. Cohen, Vice Chair | Chairman and President, Kramex, Inc. | Director, BioTime | President, Merck Sharp & Dohme
Alain Mérieux | Chairman and CEO, BioMérieux | President, Institut Mérieux
Amanda Gutkin | Strategic Business Advisor – Middle East
Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley Bagley | Senior Advisor to the Secretary of State | U.S. Representative to the U.N. General Assembly | Council on Foreign Relations | Atlantic Council | ACUMEN
Ambassador Maura Harty, ret. | President and CEO, ICMEC
Andre Pienaar | Executive Chairman, C5 Capital
Anne-Marie Lizin | President, Belgian Senate
Barend Fruithof | Bank Julius Baer & Co. Ltd.
Baron Daniel Cardon de Lichtbuer, Chairman Emeritus | Honorary President, Missing Children Europe | Chairman, Child Focus | Director, European Foundation for Alcohol Research
Costas Yannopoulos | Chairman, The Smile of the Child (Greece)
Courtney Gregoire | Senior Attorney, Digital Crimes Unit, Microsoft Corporation
Craig Millard (Vice Chair)
Dakis Joannou | Art Collector
Daniel Broughton, M.D., Vice Chair | The Mayo Clinic
Daniel H. Cohen, Treasurer | Surrounding Light Properties Corp.
Dennis DeConcini | U.S. Senator (Retired)
Dov Rubinstein | Partner and International Arbitrator, Center for Arbitration and Dispute Resolution (Israel/Switzerland)
Dr. Mohamed Y. Mattar | The Protection Project, The Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies
Dr. Raymond F. Schinazi | Frances Winship Walters Professor of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine | PhRMA | DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS | AMFAR
Sheila C. Johnson | Global Ambassador for CARE | Partner, ProJet Aviation | Partner, Mistral | CEO, Salamander Hospitality | Co-Founder, BET | BUSINESS WIRE | TRINITY | SMART MEETINGS | USEMBASSY.GOV | WOMEN’S LEADERSHIP EXCHANGE | WASHINGTON LIFE | HUFFINGTON POST
Ernie Allen (President and CEO) | International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children
Franz B. Humer, Chairman | Chairman, F. Hoffmann La-Roche Ltd. | Chairman, Roche Holiding Ltd. | Director, BIAL-Portela & Cia SA | ROCHE | Chairman, Diageo plc
George W. Bickerstaff | Managing Director, CRT Capital Group, LLC | Managing Director, MM Dillon
Göran Ando, MD | Chairman, Novo Nordisk A/S
Helga Long | Chair & CEO, HM Long Global Partners Ltd. | Chair & CEO, RSVP Group | Managing Partner, CT Partners
Hilmar Kopper | Former Chairman and CEO, Deutsche Bank AG
Hoda Maher El-Sayed
Irena Kozminska (Secretary) | ABCXXI Emotional Health Program (Poland)
James A. Cannavino | Chairman, DirectInsite | IBM Senior Vice President (Retired)
James A. Levine, M.D. | The Mayo Clinic
Jeff Koons | Artist
John P. Kelly, Jr. | President and CEO, Brookstone Financial Group, Inc.
John Ryan, Chairman | National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (USA)Juan Miguel Petit | Former U.N. Special Rapporteur on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution, and Child Pornography
Manus Cooney | Chair, National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (USA)
Mark N. Sirangelo, Treasurer | Chairman, Sierra Nevada Space Systems | EMBRY-RIDDLE
Mary Banotti, Vice Chair | Former Member, European Parliament
Maud de Boer Buquicchio | President, Missing Children Europe
Mihaela Geoană Secretary | Fundatia Renasterea (Romania) | President, FOCUS(Romania)
Mike DeNoma | Chairman, Chinatrust Commercial Bank | Chief Executive Officer, Guoman and Thistle Hotels  | Chief Executive Officer, OMGTel | Group Executive Director, Consumer Banking Standard Chartered, PLC
Mohamed Y. Mattar | Executive Director, The Protection Project
Nancy Kelly | Cheif Operating Officer and Principal, Kelly, Anderson & Associates
Osamu Nagayama | Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd | Chairman, Sony Corporation
Patty Wetterling, Chairman | National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (USA)
Per-Olof Loof | CEO, Kermet Corporation
Professor Ernesto Caffo | President, SOS II Telefono Azzurro (Italy)
Ralph Parilla, Chairman | National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (USA)
Rena Rowan Damone | Co-Founder, Jones Apparel Group
Robbie Callaway | Consultant, FirstPic, Inc. | President & CEO, Technology Investors, Inc.
Rosalia Gil Fernández
Sir Francis Jacobs | President, Missing Children Europe
Susannah Schaefer
Teresa Carlson | Vice President, Amazon Web Services Worldwide Public Sector
Timothy W. Cranton | Senior Director, Worldwide Internet Safety Programs, Microsoft Corporation | Associate General Counsel, Microsoft Corporation
Victor Halberstadt, Vice Chair | Professor of Economics, Leiden University | Crown-Member, Netherlands Social-Economic Council | Chairman, International Advisory Board, DaimlerChrysler | Advisor, Secretary-General, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development | Steering Committee, Bilderberg Group | Board of International Advisors, Goldman Sachs

Advisory Board Members (Past and Current) (Many Titles  amd Positions are Not Current)

Professor Nigel Lowe | Cardiff University Law School | United Kingdom
Susan Murray de Prilick | Red Solidaria | Argentina
Sir John Stanley | Member of Parliament | United Kingdom
Professor Max Taylor | University College Cork | Ireland
Junius J. Gonzales, MD | National Institute of Mental Health, United States
Pam Portin | Microsoft | United States
Bill Harmon | Microsoft Corporation
Sue Hotelling | Microsoft Corporation
James A. Levine, M.D. | The Mayo Clinic


Ambassador Maura Harty
Richard Brown
Michael Cachine
Catherine Cummings
Katia Dantas
Patricia Dew
Leah Fraley
Guillermo Galarza
Dr. Jordan Greenbaum
Abbe Horswill
Caroline Humer
Sandra Marchenko
Pilar Ramirez
Jessica Sarra
Bindu Sharma
Courtney Reed

Special Thanks

The Koons Family
The WoodsCharitable Foundation
The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation

Microsoft Joins Interpol and International Center for Missing and Exploited Children for Global Training Conference in San Jose, Costa Rica | INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR MISSING & EXPLOITED CHILDREN | FEB 23, 2004

The Koons Family Institute on International Law & Policy | INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR MISSING & EXPLOITED CHILDREN

Broad Foundation | $ 400 Million Gift to Genetic Institute | NEW YORK TIMES | SEP 4, 2008

Göran Ando, MD

International Center for Missing & Exploited Children | Director
Novo Nordisk A | S | Chairman
Pharmacia Corporation | President of Research & Development 19952003
Pfizer Australia Pty Limited | President, Research & Development (1995 – 2003)
Pharmacia AB | Executive Vice President & Deputy Chief Executive Officer (1995 – Prior)
Glaxo Group Ltd. | Director, Research & Development (1989 – 1995)
Pfizer AB | Executive Vice President & Deputy Chief Executive Officer (1978 – Prior)
AstraZeneca UK Ltd. | President, Astra Research Center (Prior)
Elan Corp | Director
Essex Bidco Ltd | Non Executive DirectorBetween 2004 – 2012, Novo Nordisk paid at least $1,780,000 to Podesta Group

Clinton FoundationDonations

Pfizer Inc | $1,000,000-$5,000,000
Novo Nordisk A/S | $50,000-$100,000
Novozymes A/S | $50,000-$100,000
AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP | $50,000-$100,000
AstraZeneca PLC | $100,000-$250,000

Victor Halberstadt

International Center for Missing & Exploited Children | Vice Chairman of The Board of Directors
Bilderberg Group | Member of the Steering Committee
The World Economic Forum | Member (Current)
The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. | Member, Board of International Advisors (Current)
Daimler-Chrysler | Chairman of the International Advisory Board (1995 – 2005)
Leiden University | Professor of Economics

Clinton FoundationDonations

Daimler Trucks North America LLC | $500,001 – $1,000,000
Goldman Sachs Philanthropy Fund | $250,001 – $500,000
The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. | $1,000,001 – $5,000,000

Franz Humer | ROCHE


Paid to Podesta Group

1998 Roche Group $200,000
1999 Roche Group $160,000
2000 Roche Group $160,000
2001 Roche Group $80,000
2002 Roche Group $180,000
2003 Roche Group $200,000
2004 Roche Group $200,000
2005 Roche Group $200,000
2006 Roche Group $200,000
2007 Roche Holdings $120,000
2008 Roche Holdings $240,000
2009 Roche Holdings $160,000
2001 Citigroup Inc $100,000
2011 Diageo PLC $210,000
2015 Diageo PLC $200,000
2014 Diageo PLC $200,000
2013 Diageo PLC $200,000
2012 Diageo PLC $200,000
2016 Diageo PLC $150,000
2010 Diageo PLC $150,000

Clinton FoundationDonations

Genentech, Inc. | $10,001 – $25,000
Citi Foundation  | $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Citigroup Inc  | $500,001 – $1,000,000
Diageo PLC | $50,001 – $100,000


OMGTel | Chief Executive Officer
Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. LP | Senior Advisor (2009 – present)
CTBC Bank Co., Ltd. | President & Chief Executive Officer (2009 – 2012)
Standard Chartered Plc /International Private Banking Business | Head of Strategy (1999 – 2009)
Citibank NA | Senior Vice President of Marketing-Asia (1989 – 1992)
CTBC Financial Holding Co. Ltd. | Chief Executive Officer-Banking Business (past) formerly known as Chinese Securities Investment Corp
Hutchison Whampoa Ltd. | Chief Operations Manager & Marketing Officer (past)
CONSISTEL (Singapore) Pte Ltd. | Chief Executive Officer, Omgtel (2016 – Current)

Lobbying fees paid to Podesta

2011 | KKR & Co | $280,000 | First Data Corp | Finance/Credit
2012 | KKR & Co | $320,000 | First Data Corp | Finance/Credit
2013 | KKR & Co | $320,000 | First Data Corp | Finance/Credit
2014 | KKR & Co | $320,000 | First Data Corp | Finance/Credit
2015 | KKR & Co | $110,000 | First Data Corp | Finance/Credit

Clinton FoundationDonations

Standard Chartered Bank | $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
James A. Kohlberg | $50,001 – $100,000
Citi Foundation | $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Citigroup Inc | $500,001 – $1,000,000

 Side note: Mobile Systems International Founded in 1989 by Dr Mohammed “Mo” Ibrahim

Dr. Raymond F. Schinazi

Emory University School of Medicine | Professor of Pediatrics,
Idenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc. | Founder
Triangle Pharmaceuticals, Inc. | Founder

Clinton FoundationDonations

Gilead Sciences, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000

George W. Bickerstaff  LINKEDIN

MM DILLON (investment bankers) | MANAGING DIRECTOR (2005 – PRESENT)

Dennis DeConcini

Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation FREDDIE MAC | Appointed to the Board of Directors by Bill Clinton in 1995
Arizona Board of Regents | Appointed by DHS Secretary Janet Napolitano
Keating Five | Drain the Swamp
Global Health Science | Board Member

Per-Olof Loof

KEMET Electronics Corporation | Chief Executive Officer (2005 – present)
The QuanStar Group LLC | Managing Partner (2003 – 2004)
Sensormatic Electronics LLC | Chief Executive Officer (1992-2002)
AT&T Istel | Chief Executive Officer (past)
NCR Corporation | Senior Vice President (past)
Digital Equipment Corporation | Vice President of Sales & Marketing (past)
Evox Rifa Group Oyj | Chairman (2007 – present)
Global Options, Inc. | Vice Chairman (2004 – present)
NEC Tokin Corp. | Chairman (current)
Biosensors International USA | Director (current)

year contribution recipient
2012 $1,000 Patrick Murphy
2012 $2,500 Debbie Wasserman Schultz
2016 $2,700 Hillary For America


Kemet is a group of private companies that invests in, and manages, a range of natural resource projects across Africa, and advises certain African governments on natural resource policy.”


Kemet Group’s combination of deep knowledge of the African market, extensive investment experience, the capability to add value to portfolio company operations, and strong network of reliable and trusted local financial, industrial and governmental relationships, position it well to identify and execute on attractive investment opportunities across the region.”

“Kemet Group has been directly involved in the development of a wide range of mining, energy and natural resources projects across seventeen African countries, including: South Africa, Mozambique, Zambia, Malawi, Tanzania, Kenya, Nigeria, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Rwanda and Gabon.”Looks like the fight aginst slave labor sourced materials might be a sham too.”

Daniel H. Cohen

Surrounding Light Properties Corp.
Son of Abraham “Barry” Cohen

Abraham E “Barry” Cohen (dead)



James A. Levine, M.D.

International Center for Missing & Exploited Children | BOARD OF ADVISORS

The Infrastructure for Biosensors in Medicine: Better Mathematics and a Mindset Shift | OXFORD EPIDEMIOLOGY SERVICES


Teresa Carlson

International Center for Missing & Exploited Children | DIRECTOR
Amazon Web Services Worldwide | Vice-President of Public Sector

Agencies to look for a ‘cloud option’
Federal Cloud Computing Strategy
US Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap Volume 1 Release 1.0 (Draft)
The Rise of Amazon Web Services
Amazon Web Services
Smart is beautiful

The Details About the CIA’s Deal With Amazon | THE ATLANTIC | JUL 17, 2014

A $600 million computing cloud built by an outside company is a “radical departure” for the risk averse intelligence community.

This summer, a $600 million computing cloud developed by Amazon Web Services for the Central Intelligence Agency over the past year will begin servicing all 17 agencies that make up the intelligence community.



Professional Services Council

Lobbying Fees paid to Podesta Group $1,690,000

2007 Professional Services Council $40,000
2008 Professional Services Council $310,000
2009 Professional Services Council $170,000
2010 Professional Services Council $110,000
2011 Professional Services Council $170,000
2012 Professional Services Council $280,000
2013 Professional Services Council $280,000
2014 Professional Services Council $120,000
2015 Professional Services Council $120,000
2016 Professional Services Council $90,000


Alfred Mann Foundation

Lobbying Fees paid to Podesta Group $1,100,000

2008 Alfred Mann Foundation $0
2009 Alfred Mann Foundation $320,000
2010 Alfred Mann Foundation $320,000
2011 Alfred Mann Foundation $320,000
2014 Alfred Mann Foundation $140,000


American Chemistry Council (Gerry Podesta)

Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group $ 1.100.000

2011 American Chemistry Council $250,000
2012 American Chemistry Council $470,000
2013 American Chemistry Council $380,000


Amgen Inc

Lobbying Fees paid to Podesta Group $4,100,000

2003 Amgen Inc $100,000
2004 Amgen Inc $460,000
2005 Amgen Inc $440,000
2006 Amgen Inc $520,000
2007 Amgen Inc $260,000
2008 Amgen Inc $240,000
2009 Amgen Inc $330,000
2010 Amgen Inc $290,000
2011 Amgen Inc $240,000
2012 Amgen Inc $320,000
2013 Amgen Inc $240,000
2014 Amgen Inc $240,000
2015 Amgen Inc $240,000
2016 Amgen Inc $180,000

Amphastar Pharmaceuticals

Lobbying Fees paid to Podesta Group $370.00

2009 Amphastar Pharmaceuticals $160,000
2010 Amphastar Pharmaceuticals $210,000 1190px-amylin_pharmaceuticals-svg

Amylin Pharmaceuticals

Lobbying Fees Paid to Podesta Group $

2007 Amylin Pharmaceuticals $120,000
2008 Amylin Pharmaceuticals $180,000
2009 Amylin Pharmaceuticals $200,000
2010 Amylin Pharmaceuticals $200,000
2011 Amylin Pharmaceuticals $200,000
2012 Amylin Pharmaceuticals $100,000


Lobbying Fees paid to Podesta Group $ 80.000

2000 Applera Corp $40,000 Celera Genomics
2001 Applera Corp $40,000 Celera Genomics



Lobbying Fees paid to Podesta Group $

2007 Covidien Ltd $140,000
2008 Covidien Ltd $180,000
2009 Covidien Ltd $260,000
2010 Covidien Ltd $240,000
2011 Covidien Ltd $200,000
2012 Covidien Ltd $230,000
2013 Covidien Ltd $240,000
2014 Covidien Ltd $20,00


Cubist Pharmaceuticals

Lobbying Fees paid to Podesta Group $

2007 Cubist Pharmaceuticals $20,000
2008 Cubist Pharmaceuticals $160,000
2009 Cubist Pharmaceuticals $280,000
2010 Cubist Pharmaceuticals $300,000
2011 Cubist Pharmaceuticals $240,000
2012 Cubist Pharmaceuticals $240,000


Elsai Co

Lobbying Fees paid to Podesta Group $

2009 Eisai Co Ltd $200,000
2010 Eisai Co Ltd $210,000
2011 Eisai Co Ltd $200,000
2012 Eisai Co Ltd $240,000
2013 Eisai Co Ltd $80,000


Eli Lily

Lobbying Fees paid to Podesta Group $

1999 Eli Lilly & Co $80,000
2000 Eli Lilly & Co $80,000

 Sanofi Pasteur - CMJN - Colors


Lobbying Fees paid to Podesta Group $

1998 Genzyme Corp $60,000
1999 Genzyme Corp $40,000
2000 Genzyme Corp $140,000
2001 Genzyme Corp $80,000
2002 Genzyme Corp $100,000
2003 Genzyme Corp $120,000
2004 Genzyme Corp $140,000
2005 Genzyme Corp $120,000
2006 Genzyme Corp $160,000
2007 Genzyme Corp $160,000
2008 Genzyme Corp $400,000
2009 Genzyme Corp $510,000
2010 Genzyme Corp $340,000


Gilead Sciences

Lobbying Fees paid to Podesta Group $

2009 Gilead Sciences $150,000
2010 Gilead Sciences $360,000
2011 Gilead Sciences $360,000
2012 Gilead Sciences $360,000
2013 Gilead Sciences $360,000
2014 Gilead Sciences $360,000
2015 Gilead Sciences $100,000


Johnson & Johnson

Lobbying Fees paid to Podesta Group $

2011 Johnson & Johnson $100,000
2012 Johnson & Johnson $160,000
2013 Johnson & Johnson $200,000
2014 Johnson & Johnson $50,000


Merck KGaA (on behalf of Subsidiary EMD Serono)

Lobbying Fees paid to Podesta Group $

2007 Merck KGaA $200,000 EMD Serono Inc
2008 Merck KGaA $150,000 EMD Serono Inc
2009 Merck KGaA $240,000 EMD Serono Inc
2010 Merck KGaA $240,000 EMD Serono Inc
2011 Merck KGaA $240,000 EMD Serono Inc
2012 Merck KGaA $240,000 EMD Serono Inc
2013 Merck KGaA $240,000 EMD Serono Inc
2014 Merck KGaA $240,000 EMD Serono Inc
2015 Merck KGaA $240,000 EMD Serono Inc
2016 Merck KGaA $180,000 EMD Serono Inc


Millenium Pharmaceuticals

Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group $

2004 Millennium Pharmaceuticals $40,000
2005 Millennium Pharmaceuticals $120,000
2006 Millennium Pharmaceuticals $120,000
2007 Millennium Pharmaceuticals $180,000



Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group $2,320,000

1999 Novartis AG $160,000
2000 Novartis AG $200,000
2005 Novartis AG $320,000
2006 Novartis AG $320,000
2007 Novartis AG $0
2008 Novartis AG $210,000
2009 Novartis AG $240,000
2010 Novartis AG $240,000
2011 Novartis AG $100,000
2014 Novartis AG $180,000
2015 Novartis AG $200,000
2016 Novartis AG $150,000


Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals

Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group $

2004 Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals $20,000
2005 Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals $180,000
2006 Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals $200,000
2007 Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals $220,000
2008 Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals $200,000
2009 Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals $240,000
2010 Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals $240,000
2011 Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals $240,000
2012 Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals $240,000



Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group $

2004 Pfizer Inc $100,000
2005 Pfizer Inc $180,000
2006 Pfizer Inc $240,000
2007 Pfizer Inc $40,000


Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America

Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group $2,010,000

1998 Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America $120,000
1999 Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America $140,000
2000 Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America $160,000
2001 Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America $20,000
2002 Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America $160,000
2003 Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America $330,000
2004 Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America $360,000
2005 Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America $360,000
2006 Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America $360,000




Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group $2,100,000

1998 | Roche Group $200,000 Genentech Inc
1999 | Roche Group $160,000 Genentech Inc
2000 | Roche Group $160,000 Genentech Inc
2001 | Roche Group $80,000 Genentech Inc
2002 | Roche Group $180,000 Genentech Inc
2003 | Roche Group $200,000 Genentech Inc
2004 | Roche Group $200,000 Genentech Inc
2005 | Roche Group $200,000 Genentech Inc
2006 | Roche Group $200,000 Genentech Inc
2007 | Roche Holdings $120,000 Genentech Inc
2008 | Roche Holdings $240,000 Genentech Inc
2009 | Roche Holdings $160,000 Genentech Inc


Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group $

2011 Sanofi $240,000 Genzyme Corp
2012 Sanofi $240,000 Genzyme Corp
2013 Sanofi $240,000 Genzyme Corp
2014 Sanofi $240,000 Genzyme Corp



Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group $

1998 Serono Inc $20,000
1999 Serono Inc $160,000
2000 Serono Inc $120,000
2001 Serono Inc $40,000
2002 Serono Inc $120,000
2003 Serono Inc $70,000
2004 Serono Inc $160,000
2005 Serono Inc $160,000
2006 Serono Inc $120,000
2006 Serono Inc $80,000
2008 Serono Inc $50,000



2011 ViroPharma Inc $40,000
2012 ViroPharma Inc $160,000
2013 ViroPharma Inc $160,000
2014 ViroPharma Inc $10,000

Drug And Human Trafficking In ‘Lawless’ Libya Is Funding Isis | IB TIMES

Calm Seas, Libya’s Lawless State Open Door For Migrant Flows | REUTERS

Under Clinton’s leadership, the State Department approved $165 billion worth of commercial arms sales to 20 nations whose governments have given money to the Clinton Foundation | IBTIMES

Clinton Charity Received About $12,000,000 from the King of Morocco and Various Moroccan Owned Entities | DAILYCALLER | CNN | HUFFPOST

Military intel predicted rise of ISIS in 2012, detailed arms shipments from Benghazi to Syria | FOX

Hillary Clinton Knew BACK IN 2011 About US Weapons Shipments from Libya to Syria | GW PUNDIT

Weapons shipments highlight the ambiguous roles of Qatar and Turkey in the fight against Islamic militants | ITALY 24


Qatar’s Support of Islamists Alienates Allies Near and Far | NY TIMES | SEP 7, 2014



“Abdul Rahman al-Nuaimi accused of sitting at centre of web of funding for al-Qaeda affiliates in countries ranging from Yemen to Syria, to Iraq to Somalia.”

“Mr Nuaimi, 60, has previously worked as a professor of history at Qatar University and even as president of the Qatar Football Association.”

“A leaked cable from the US Embassy in Doha in 2007 describes him as an “Islamist hardliner” and states that he was briefly jailed in 2000, for criticising the wife of Qatar’s then ruler for her role in public life.” | WIKILEAKS 07DOHA709_a

He also was a founding board member of the Eid bin Mohammed Al Thani Charitable Association and a past board member of Qatar Islamic Bank.


Should Qatar be Judged by the Company they Keep? | CONSORTIUM AGAINST TERRORISM FINANCING | SEP 10, 2015

A 2015 report by the Consortium Against Terrorist Finance (CATF) called attention on Qatar Islamic Bank’s correspondents claiming that some of them “have controversial histories of affiliation with or support of terrorist or extremist activities.”

Qatar Islamic Bank’s (QIB) controversial correspondents include:

Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL) | WIKIPEDIA despite evidence suggesting they have also engaged in terrorist financing.

The presence of IBBL among QIB’s financial partners is not surprising given that Al Rajhi Bank had a 37% direct ownership in IBBL.

Moneyjihad reported that in 2011 “the Bangladeshi home ministry intelligence revealed that 8 percent of the bank’s profits were diverted as corporate zakat to support jihad in Bangladesh.”

Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group $390,000

2015 | Islami Bank Bangladesh | $300,000
2016 | Islami Bank Bangladesh | $90,000

Hackers behind $81 MILLION cyber heist – one of the world’s biggest ever – from Bangladesh bank will NEVER be caught as they are ‘untraceable’ | DAILY MAIL | MAY 25, 2016

In February $81million (£55million) vanished from Bangladesh central bank

The money was transferred to bank accounts in Manila, Philippines

Much of it was then laundered at casinos in Manila

They only succeeded in transferring the $81million, all of which ended up in accounts with the Rizal Commercial Banking Corp (RCBC) in the Philippines.

No accusations, just ideas.


While the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) takes seriously the threat of terrorism within Saudi Arabia, it has been an ongoing challenge to persuade Saudi officials to treat terrorist financing emanating from Saudi Arabia as a strategic priority.

Saudi Arabia remains a critical financial support base for al Qa’ida, the Taliban, LeT, and other terrorist groups, including Hamas. Riyadh has taken only limited action to disrupt fundraising for the UN 1267-listed Taliban and LeT-groups that are also aligned with al-Qa’ida and focused on undermining stability in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

While the GOK has demonstrated a willingness to take action when attacks target Kuwait, it has been less inclined to take action against Kuwait-based financiers and facilitators plotting attacks outside of Kuwait. Al-Qa’ida and other groups continue to exploit Kuwait both as a source of funds and as a key transit point.

United Arab Emirates (UAE)-based donors have provided financial support to a variety of terrorist groups, including al Qa’ida, the Taliban, LeT and other terrorist groups, including Hamas.

Pakistan’s intermittent support to terrorist groups and militant organizations threatens to undermine regional security and endanger U.S. national security objectives in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Qatar has adopted a largely passive approach to cooperating with the U.S. against terrorist financing. Qatar’s overall level of CT cooperation with the U.S. is considered the worst in the region. Al-Qaida, the Taliban, UN-1267 listed LeT, and other terrorist groups exploit Qatar as a fundraising locale. Although Qatar’s security services have the capability to deal with direct threats and occasionally have put that capability to use, they have been hesitant to act against known terrorists out of concern for appearing to be aligned with the U.S. and provoking reprisals.


How did Qatar get So Rich?

Liquefied Natural Gas Makes Qatar an Energy Giant | NEW YORK TIMES | AUG 5, 2015

Expanding Trade Routes

In less than 20 years, Qatar has become the world’s leading supplier of liquefied natural gas, accounting for about a third of the global L.N.G. trade. Five Asian countries purchased more than 70 percent of global L.N.G. imports in 2014.


Looking to the example of Malaysia and Indonesia, Qatar and Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, who was then its emir, started promoting L.N.G. in the mid-1990s. Exxon Mobil was the important early investor; Shell, Total and ConocoPhillips soon followed.

Qatar and its energy partners took the business to a new level, developing far bigger and more efficient plants. Last year, Qatar produced about a third of all liquefied natural gas, although Australia and the United States have big export ambitions.

It is a lucrative business that has made Qatar the world’s wealthiest country by output per capita. While industry growth has recently been flat, worldwide volumes have roughly quadrupled in the last two decades to about 240 million metric tons a year, or 264 million short tons, accounting for about one-third of overall gas exports. Annual sales are estimated at $180 billion.

With the full development of Qatar, L.N.G. came of age,” said Michael Stoppard, chief gas strategist at IHS, a market research firm. “Qatar made L.N.G. a bigger business — bigger projects, bigger ships, bigger volumes and a much bigger global footprint.“

The Qataris originally planned to deliver much of their L.N.G. to the United States and Europe, but those plans were frustrated by the shale gas boom in North America. Instead, three-quarters of Qatari gas flowed last year to Asian countries like China, India and South Korea. Japan was Qatar’s largest customer as its electric utilities substituted natural gas generation for nuclear after the 2011 Fukushima disaster.

Tangent Warning – Podesta Flashback

Podesta knocks greens on gas | POLITICO | MAR 19, 2014

White House adviser John Podesta took aim Wednesday at environmentalists who have criticized the Obama administration’s support for natural gas.

What else is Qatar doing with All That Money? Investing in Art and Foreign Corporations

Qatari Riches Are Buying Art World Influence | NY TIMES

Qataris have used it to secure a host of undisputed modern and contemporary masterpieces by Francis Bacon, Roy Lichtenstein, Andy Warhol and Jeff Koons.

Until Qatar’s 2007 purchase, for example, the most expensive Rothko ever sold at auction (“Homage to Matisse”) had drawn $22 million in 2005, less than one-third of the price Qatar paid.

$250 million for Cézanne’s “Card Players” from the family of Greek shipping magnate George Embiricos

Sothesby’s | George Embiricos Tribute

Qatar has been Buying Up about $1 Billion Worth of Art Annually

Why would a hardline Wahhabi Government splash out Billions of Dollars to Secular Western aA

What Are The Top 10 Al Thani Family Art Acquisitions? | ARTNET

(10) Damien Hirst, Lullaby Spring, $19 million | A Pill Cabinet with Thousands of Pills was purchased in the Spring of 2007 at Sotheby’s.

9/11 Wicked but a Work of Art, says Damien Hirst | THE GUARDIAN | SEPTEMBER 10, 2002

The Artist Damien Hirst said last night he believed the Terrorists Responsible for the September 11 Attacks “Need Congratulating” because they achieved “Something which Nobody would ever have thought Possible” on an Artistic Level.

Hirst, who is No Stranger to Controversy, said Many People would “Shy Away” from looking at the Event as Art but he believed the World Trade Centre Attack was “Kind of like an Artwork in it’s Own Right”.

In an Interview, Hirst told BBC News OnlineThe Thing about 9/11 is that it’s kind of an Artwork in its Own Right. It was Wicked, but it was devised in this way for this Kind of Impact. It was devised Visually.”

Describing the Image of the Hijacked Planes crashing into the Twin Towers as “Visually Stunning”, he added “You’ve got to hand it to them on some Level because they’ve achieved something which Nobody would have ever have thought Possible, especially to a Country as Big as America.”

So on One Level they kind of need congratulating, which a Lot of People shy away from, which is a very Dangerous Thing.”

Qatar’s Oil Boom created the World’s Most Extravagant Art Scene – and also led to it’s Demise | QUARTZ | AUGUST 14, 2016
Damien Hirst, Jeff Koons, and Naomi Campbell made their Way through the VIP Crowd, past the Fleet of Bentleys, and toward the Waiting Helicopter.”

Hirst – the English Artist Best Known for his Multi Million Dollar Sculpture of a Shark Floating in Formaldehyde – was in Town on Official Business. Qatar Museums (QM) had ponied up over $ 20 Million to fund a Retrospective of his Work and Commission a Series of Pieces. He had spent the Last Hour showing QM’s Chairperson, Sheikha Mayassa (who is also the Daughter of the Emir), around the Exhibition, pointing out exactly how her Country’s Money had been spent. The Other Two were just tagging along, presumably. Besides, the After Party sounded promising. QM had organized a Pop Up Prada Shop in the Middle of the Desert, and Guests were being ferried there via Private Helicopter.”

As the Rotor Blades sprang to Life and the Unlikely Trio was lifted into the Sky, the South Asian Laborers working nearby stopped to watch the Spectacle. They were being paid $ 11 a day to Swing Pick Axes in the Desert Sun and lay the Groundwork for the new Qatar National Museum.”

The Nation’s stark Wealth Disparity was also a Source of Tension. While QM’s Offices offered Panoramic Views of Doha’s Futuristic Skyline, you only had to look to the Streets below to see the South Asian Laborers who had made those Skyscrapers a Reality. Since the Qatari Population barely numbers 200,000 and lacked the Specialist Skills – and Inclination – to do any of this Grunt Work, Plane Loads of Migrant Workers started arriving to make up the Shortfall. These were Guys who had been shipped over with Promises of Big Money only to have their Contracts Rewritten, their Passports Confiscated, and their Wages Slashed before being pointed toward the Nearest Construction Site.

South Asia ‘shares Blame’ for Gulf Migrant Abuses | ASIAN REVIEW | JUNE 30, 2016

Amid Growing Concern about Qatar’s Treatment of South Asian Migrants building the Infrastructure for the 2022 Soccer World Cup, Activists are warning that Labor Abuses are widespread throughout the Gulf, and that Workers’ Home Countries share the Blame.

Concerns have been raised over Working Conditions with Emir Tamim Bin Hamad Al Thani, Qatar’s Authoritarian Ruler.

Amnesty International, a Human Rights Group, said that almost all of more than 200 Laborers it interviewed on Two World Cup related Construction Sites in Doha were being Exploited by their Employers.

However, Qatar is neither the Top Gulf Destination for South Asian Migrant Workers nor the Worst alleged Violator of their Rights. Indian Embassies received more than 7,000 Labor Complaints from Gulf Countries in the 11 Months to November 2015, mostly from Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj told Parliament in New Delhi in December.

Revealed Qatar’s World CupSlaves’ | THE GUARDIAN

Dozens of Nepalese Migrant Labourers have died in Qatar in Recent Weeks and Thousands more are enduring Appalling Labour Abuses, a The Guardian Investigation has found, raising Serious Questions about Qatar’s Preparations to host the 2022 World Cup.

This Summer, Nepalese Workers died at a Rate of almost One a Day in Qatar, many of them Young Men who had Sudden Heart Attacks.

The Investigation found Evidence to suggest that Thousands of Nepalese, who make up the Single Largest Group of Labourers in Qatar, face Exploitation and Abuses that Amount to Modern Day Slavery, as defined by the International Labour Organisation, during a Building Binge paving the Way for 2022.

Qatar: The Shape of Tomorrow | BLOUINART | JUN 19, 2016

Qatar has taken a keen interest in Jeff Koons, and not just his artwork either. A frequent guest of the Qatari royal family, Jeff Koons has played a major role in the development of their billion dollar Museum of Modern Art.

Distinguished Artists to Join Curators, Art Collectors and Museum Directors at the New York Times ‘Art For Tomorrow’ Conference | NY TIMES | JAN 20, 2016

Artist Marina Abramović, Art Basel global director Marc Spiegler, UNESCO’s Francesco Bandarin among diverse mix of art-world leaders to appear in Doha March 12-15

The invitation-only event, organized under the patronage of Qatar Museums, will expand its exploration of the myriad global influences shaping the creative infrastructure of nations and cities. The conference will be introduced by Her Excellency Sheikha Al Mayassa bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, chairwoman, Qatar Museums, and Arthur O. Sulzberger, Jr., chairman and publisher, The New York Times Company.

Speakers include

Marina Abramović | artist
Jeff Koons | artist
Francesco Bandarin | assistant director general for culture, UNESCO
Dakis Joannou | collector
Jeffrey Deitch | curator and gallerist, former director, MOCA
Gail Lord | co-president, Lord Culture Resources

Sotheby’s and QNB are the headline sponsors for the Art for Tomorrow conference. Qatar Tourism Authority is the destination sponsor. The host sponsors are Jaidah Group and W Hotels.

Enter PodestaGroup – Owned by you guessed it, Tony and John Podesta

Lobbyists Set to Fight Royalty Bill for Artists. | NY TIMES

Sotheby’s hired the Podesta Group. This same auction house is selling hundreds of millions of dollars in art to Qatar including a “Cezanne” that sold for $250 million

Tony Podesta is world class trader | WASHINGTON LIFE MAGAZINE

“Go inside power lobbyist, philanthropist and contemporary art collector Tony Podesta’s Kalorama home…”

“He regularly opens his house to casual pizza parties co-hosted by his friend James Alefantis, the owner of Comet Ping Pong. Over 200 pies emerge from the outdoor pizza oven as guests wander through the house and garden while studying his art collection.”

Some of his favorite artists are mentioned: Louise Bourgeois, Andy Warhol, Marina Abramovic.

Tony Podesta owns entire collections of Damien Hirst pieces |

Anthony “Tony” Podesta began lobbying in late 2013 on behalf of Goldenpass Products, a company co-owned by ExxonMobil and Qatar Petroleum, aiming to export liquefied natural gas. | WIKILEAKS PODESTA 37308

Brother of Hillary Clinton’s Top Campaign Aide Lobbied for Fracked Gas Export Terminal Co-Owned by Qatar. DESMOG BLOG

Podesta Group’s lobbying for expedited permitting for LNG export terminals paid dividends.

During the same quarter that Tony Podesta began lobbying for Golden Pass, President Obama hired John Podesta in December 2013 as his top counselor on climate change and energy issues. | GLOBAL RESARCH

On March 26, 2014, a week after John Podesta made his remarks about the environmental movement and fracking, Tony had a meeting with the White House. On April 4 and August 4, the logs show, Tony Podesta met with John Podesta in the White House. | WIKILEAKS PODESTA 41443

Returning to Jeff Koons and his ties to Qatar:

Qatar: The Shape of Tomorrow | JUN 19, 2016

Doha: Plastic and ready-made, it’s a city built for Jeff Koons.

“I love the readymade because of the idea of acceptance,” Koons tells me, “that everything is in play and that everything is perfect in its own being.” It’s little wonder that he is attracted to Qatar. The mini-state’s boom mirrors the artist’s own rise to fame. Two decades ago, Doha had no skyline. It was just a smattering of one- or two-story edifices on the desert coast.

In Qatar, Koons could never exhibit “Made in Heaven,” his collaboration with the Italian pornography star Ilona; the racy sculptures ”Woman in Tub” and “Fait d’Hiver” wouldn’t fly, either.

“My idea of participating and of art having a moral responsibility, I think, comes from my experience of growing up,” he said, “in that first you have a concept of self and of transcendence of the self, and then you become aware of your place within the community and your responsibility to the community, and that just gets played out on larger scales later in life, depending upon your desire for participation.”

Next year, Marina Abramović will conduct a series of lectures and performances, and exhibit at Al Riwaq.

Jeff Koons & Hillary Clinton

It turns out, Jeff Koons has been a donor to Democratic causes and candidates for a long time.

Jeff Koons donated contributed to Correct the Record | FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION

Jeff Koons donated $50,000 USD to correct the record, a political hit squad founded by David Brock, a close associate of John Podesta and James Alefantis.

Jeff Koons Endorses Hillary Clinton for President, Says Trump Not ‘Suitable’ | ARTNET | OCT 20, 2016

Jeff Koons joins a growing list of artists and art world personalities who are endorsing Hillary Clinton in the upcoming American presidential election.

Speaking to the German Art Magazine Monopol, the Artist argued that the Democratic Candidate will do more to support the Visual Arts in America than Republican Nominee Donald Trump. He revealed that he has supported Clinton since meeting her at The White House 20 years ago. The Two have had a Number of Interactions since then; for instance, in 2012, Clinton presented him with the Medal of Arts.

Hillary Clinton has always supported the Arts,” Koons said, adding that she “Closely follows the Developments in the Art World.”

Artists raise Millions for Hillary Clinton | THE ART NEWSPAPER | NOV 3, 2016

Jeff Koons has donated more than $50,000 in Cash and through his work to support the US Presidential Candidate

Jeff Koons’s Donation of $50,000 to Correct the Record, a “Super Pac” (Public Action Committee) backing Hillary Clinton, is the biggest Cash Donation by an Artist to this year’s US Presidential Campaign. According to Reports from the Federal Election Committee, Koons made the Donation on 17 June this year.”

But the Artist has potentially donated significantly more in kind: he created a Print in an Edition of 40, Gazing Ball (da Vinci Mona Lisa), which was given to those who bought a $50,000 Ticket to an Auction hosted by Larry Gagosian in September.”

If all 40 of those Prints sold, it would raise $2 million for the Hillary Victory Fund, however a Spokesman for the Campaign said it could not release such Donor Information.”

Koons was Not Available for Comment, but recently told Monopol Magazine that he had supported Clinton for 20 Years. She awarded him with the Medal of Arts in 2013, when she was Secretary of State.”

Other prominent Artists to have supported the Clinton Campaign according to the Federal Election Committee Reports, through Cash Donations or Auctioned Works – many given as part of September’s Gagosian Auction – include Marina Abramovic ($2,700 Cash Donation made in May), Glenn Ligon ($30,000 “Joint Fundraising Contribution” in September), Ed Ruscha ($12,500 Contribution in September), Richard Serra ($28,000 Contribution in September), Cindy Sherman ($33,400 and $75,000 Contributions in August and September) and Sarah Sze ($21,000 Contribution in September).”

Art Dealers including Larry Gagosian and David Zwirner have also donated to the Clinton Campaign.”

He’s With Her, Larry Gagosian to host Fundraising Auction for Hillary Clinton at 21st Street Gallery | ARTNEWS | AUGUST 29, 2016

ARTnews has learned that on September 12, Larry Gagosian will host “Art for Hillary Auction 2016” at the Gagosian Gallery Space on West 21st Street in Chelsea, presiding over a Benefit Sale that will raise money for Hillary Clinton’s Presidential Campaign.

Jeff Koons | International Center for Missing & Exploited Children, Director | RELATIONSHIP SCIENCE | ICMEC BOARD OF DIRECTORS

The International Center for Missing & Exploited Children held its first Board of Directors meeting in May 1998. It was officially launched in April 1999 by Hillary Clinton, then-First Lady of the United States, and Cherie Blair, Wife of British Prime Minister Tony Blair.  | CMEC HISTORY | FOUNDING

Jeff Koons (1)

Jeff Koons (2)

Jeff Koons (3)

Jeff Koons (4)

Jeff Koons | International Center for Missing & Exploited Children | Director


Joannou & Paraskevaides is a Cypriot international building, civil and electromechanical engineering contractor with an involvement in the energy (oil and gas) and industrial sectors operating in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe and Asia.

J&P has built several airports in the Middle East, including Oman, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Jordan & UAE.

They also build roads, tunnels, bridges, islands etc.

The company was founded by his father Stelios Ioannou along with his partner George Paraskevaides.

Mr. Paraskevaides founded the Cyprus Kidney Association, the Surgical and Transplant Foundation and the Cyprus Heart Association.

J&P Locations
Dan Friedman died in 1995. Jeff Koons and Dakis Joannou have been associates for decades.
J&P Locations
Jeff Koons designed this yacht for Dakis Joannou. It is named “Guilty”

Ambassador Maura Harty | President & CEO, ICMEC

Ambassador Maura Harty is our President and Chief Executive Officer. She came to ICMEC after a career in the United States Foreign Service, devoted in large part to serving the interests of American citizens abroad. As Assistant Secretary for Consular Affairs at the U.S. Department of State, Ambassador Harty directed fundamental changes in visa policies and procedures in the wake of the September 11th attacks, prioritizing national security needs while facilitating legitimate travel to the United States..An expert in crisis management, Ambassador Harty created the Department of State’s Office of Children’s Issues (OCI) to address two daunting diplomatic challenges: the abduction of children by parents across international borders, and intercountry adoptions.Ambassador Harty served in a variety of senior positions at the State Department including Special Assistant to Secretary of State George P. Shultz, Executive Assistant to Secretary Warren Christopher, U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Paraguay, and Executive Secretary of the Department of State under Secretary Colin Powell.

Ambassador Harty demanded that Romania accept foreign adoption agreement, or be denied inclusion for U.S. Visa Waiver Program


1.(C) In meetings May 10 and 11 with President Basescu, Foreign Minister Ungureanu and other officials of the Government of Romania (GOR), Assistant Secretary Maura Harty found no evidence that the GOR had specific plans or strong commitment to resolve pending cases of international adoption affected by the law in place since January 1 banning adoptions out of Romania. She informed her interlocutors she would have to share that impression with American families whose petitions to adopt Romanian children were affected by the ban. She reiterated to FM Ungureanu the message given by the Secretary during his meeting with her in Washington, that establishing a road map towards eventual inclusion of Romania in the U.S. Visa Waiver Program (VWP) would depend on progress towards resolving the pending cases.

2.(C) (Summary, cont,d.) After his meeting with A/S Harty, President Basescu appeared to have changed his mind and decided to take positive action on the issue. On May 12, he informed Charge d,Affaires that he had discussed the adoption issue with EU Commissioner for Enlargement Olli Rehn on May 11; would instruct FM Ungureanu to write the EC expressing the desirability of putting in motion a process to resolve the cases; and that Romania would take the initiative to convince the Germans, Italians, French and others to wield their influence and urge the EC to view resolution of the cases favorably. End summary.

3.(C) Action Request: Per internal discussions during A/S Harty,s visit, post requests Department consideration of a letter from the Secretary to the European Commission urging the EC support humanitarian resolution of pending international adoption cases from Romania. End request.

24.(C) Post believes Basescu’s May 12 statements indicate he took to heart A/S Harty’s message and realized anew how seriously the USG takes resolution of the pending cases. His was the most forward-leaning commitment to action by the GOR leadership to date. Post will follow up with his advisors, the Prime Minister’s office and the MFA in the coming days, and continue to discreetly explore with European embassy interlocutors possibilities for their engaging the EC and European Parliament to resolve pending adoptions. End comment.
Why is she so obsessed with foreign adoptions? Why Romania?


The Board of Directors (past & present)


Mihaela Geoană

International Center for Missing & Exploited Children | Secretary
Fundatia Renasterea (Romania) | President
Mihaela Geoana is married to: Mircea Geoana

Mircea Geoana

Government of Romania | Ambassador to the United States (youngest ever)
The Aspen Institute of Romania | President
The Aspen Institute, Inc. | Member, Board of Trustees (Current)
World Bank Group Executive Development Program at the Harvard Business School | 1999 Graduate

Mircea Geoana ran for the Presidency of Romania in 2009. In an unprecedented narrow and contested election, he received 49.6% of the casted ballot.

Diplomatic cables revealed the discussion of agreements between Romanian organized crime and radical Muslim groups

(C) Summary. During the recent Russian Embassy-hosted G8 Counter-terrorism Action Group (CTAG) meeting (Ref A), participants agreed upon the importance of dialogue and exchange with moderate Muslims but acknowledged that their Embassies had not engaged in such efforts. Several participants discussed the nexus between organized crime networks and terrorism, with one diplomat decrying Romania’s well-organized and politically connected “silent Mafia”. End Summary.

(C/NF) Specifically addressing risks posed by organized crime, the EU Counselor proposed that the “Mafia” plays a pernicious and frequently sub rosa role in Romania. Noting the absence of press or police reports about gangland killings, he suggested that Romanian organized crime “may be so well organized they don’t need to shoot each other.” He conceded that the EU had no specific information to share on this point, opining that organized crime groups Romania “stay below the radar” and frequently collude with government officials. He observed that some sources had alleged that a “deal” existed between “certain Arab groups” and the Romanian government: “let us launder money (in Romania) and we won’t attack” Romanian targets. Later in the dialogue, he stated that PKK “operations are financed by illegal operations in Romania.”

Bush admits to secret prisons | THE GLOBE AND MAIL | SEP 7, 2006 | UPDATED MAR 17, 2009

After his administration spent months steadfastly refusing to confirm the existence of the widely criticized “black sites,”

Bush not only acknowledged that terrorists had been “held and questioned outside the United States” by the Central Intelligence Agency but he praised the program as one that had broken up several plots and kept “potential mass murderers off the streets before they were able to kill us.”

The presumed terrorists, including suspects in the attack on the USS Cole in Yemen in 2000 and the 1998 bombings of the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, have already been transferred to the U.S. military prison at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba where 455 other suspects are also being held.

Another Secret CIA Prison Found | ABC | DEC 8, 2011

Another CIA secret prison was located and identified today in Eastern Europe, and unlike others previously discovered, this one is in a heavily populated section of a capital city.

According to an AP investigation, the CIA housed six so-called high-value terrorism detainees in a Romanian government building in central Bucharest, in the midst of a leafy neighborhood and next to a railway line.

A secret CIA prison found by ABC News in Lithuania was in a forest on the premises of a former horseback riding academy outside the capital city of Vilnius.

Teresa Carlson

International Center for Missing & Exploited Children | Director
Amazon Web Services Worldwide | Vice-President of Public Sector

Agencies to look for a ‘cloud option’
Federal Cloud Computing Strategy
US Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap Volume 1 Release 1.0 (Draft)
The Rise of Amazon Web Services
Amazon Web Services
Smart is beautiful

The Details About the CIA’s Deal With Amazon | THE ATLANTIC | JUL 17, 2014

A $600 million computing cloud built by an outside company is a “radical departure” for the risk-averse intelligence community.

This summer, a $600 million computing cloud developed by Amazon Web Services for the Central Intelligence Agency over the past year will begin servicing all 17 agencies that make up the intelligence community.

Intelligence community loves its new Amazon cloud | FORTUNE | JUN 29, 2015

The new Amazon Web Services-built CIA cloud is more secure and capable than legacy systems, according to intelligence IT officials speaking at an AWS event.

The new Amazon Web Services-built CIA cloud is more secure and capable than legacy systems, according to intelligence IT officials speaking at an AWS event.

U.S. intelligence agencies moving from legacy systems to new cloud computing infrastructure built by Amazon AMZN Web Services are pretty happy about it thus far, according to a report in NextGov.

The use of a single set of infrastructure improves security over using older multiple data centers, speakers said. Jason Hess, cloud security manager for the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the first of 17 agencies to put an application in the new cloud, said consolidation means less complexity, which makes the infrastructure easier to protect.

Two years ago, the CIA selected AWS to build and run a special, secure cloud to be used by 17 intelligence-related agencies, in a contract valued at $600 million. That was a watershed event for Amazon, the leader in public cloud services. Many companies with regulatory and compliance concerns resist the notion of using public cloud infrastructure, in which resources are typically shared by many customers, although Amazon cordons off sections of its public cloud for use by select customers.

Why Amazon’s Collaboration With the CIA Is So Ominous — and Vulnerable | HUFFINGTON POST | FEB 20, 2014

As the world’s biggest online retailer, Amazon wants a benevolent image to encourage trust from customers. Obtaining vast quantities of their personal information has been central to the firm’ business model.

Amazon is diversifying — and a few months ago the company signed a $600 million contract with the Central Intelligence Agency to provide “cloud computing” services.
Amazon now has the means, motive and opportunity to provide huge amounts of customer information to its new business partner. An official statement from Amazon headquarters last fall declared: “We look forward to a successful relationship with the CIA.”

The Central Intelligence Agency has plenty of money to throw around. Thanks to documents provided by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden, we know that the CIA’s annual budget is $14.7 billion; the NSA’s is $10.8 billion.

The Cloud has been a Godsend | NEXTGOV | AUG 12, 2016

One of the CIA’s top security officials said the cloud infrastructure built by Amazon Web Services is improving the spy agency’s cybersecurity posture and speed to mission handling national security threats.

“We’re very happy with it,” Nicely added. “Our agency and other [intelligence community] components are busily working to move their workloads into the cloud, and off legacy and into the new.”



Inside Romania’s secret CIA prison | THE INDEPENDENT | DEC 08, 2011

In northern Bucharest, in a busy residential neighbourhood minutes from the heart of the capital city, is a secret the Romanian government has long tried to protect.

For years, the CIA used a government building — codenamed “Bright Light” — as a makeshift prison for its most valuable detainees. There it held al-Qa’ida operatives Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the mastermind of 9/11, and others in a basement prison before they were ultimately transferred to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, in 2006, according to former US intelligence officials familiar with the location and inner workings of the prison.

The existence of a CIA prison in Romania has been widely reported, but its location has never been made public. The Associated Press and German public television ARD located the former prison and learned details of the facility where harsh interrogation tactics were used. ARD’s programme on the CIA prison is set to air today.

The Romanian prison was part of a network of so-called black sites that the CIA operated and controlled overseas in Thailand, Lithuania and Poland. All the prisons were closed by May 2006, and the CIA’s detention and interrogation programme ended in 2009.

The CIA prison opened for business in the autumn of 2003, after the CIA decided to empty the black site in Poland, according to former US officials.

Lawyer: CIA gave Romania millions to host secret prisons | FOX NEWS | JUN 29, 2016

BUCHAREST, Romania –  A rights lawyer says Romania was paid “millions of dollars” by the CIA to host secret prisons. He spoke at a European Court of Human Rights hearing into accusations that Romania allowed the agency to torture terrorism suspects as part of a secret renditions program under President George W. Bush.

Amrit Singh told the court on Wednesday there were CIA prisons in Romania from 2003-2005 with Romania’s “acquiescence and connivance.”

Singh said her client, Saudi Arabian national Abd al-Rahim Al Nashiri, was shackled, slapped and given forced rectal feeding at a Bucharest CIA prison in 2004. He is currently in U.S. custody at Guantanamo Bay.

Department of State Travel Information: Romania | DEPARTMENT OF STATE

Be cautious about entering into contracts with Romanian businesses and/or organizations without legal assistance. Both official and societal corruption remains problematic in Romania. The Romanian legal system is difficult for foreigners to navigate, making the assistance of a local attorney nearly essential.

See the Department of State and the FBI pages for information on scams.

Balkan Transnational Organized Crime Groups | FBI

Balkan TOC groups are politically and financially motivated groups influenced by, associated with, or originating from Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, Bulgaria, Greece, and Romania. These organized crime groups cause significant financial harm to the United States each year.

Unlike traditional organized crime groups, Balkan groups do not appear to operate under a traditional hierarchy, but rather around ethnic associations and friendship ties. They also appear to be more agile, organic, and project-based. Balkan TOC groups are adept at adopting new technologies, thus increasing their ability to expand their criminal market base through cyber-enabled fraud.

These groups engage in a myriad of criminal activity including passport fraud, access device fraud, identify theft, healthcare fraud, real estate fraud, insurance fraud, money laundering, drug trafficking, human smuggling, prostitution, and extortion.

Romania Information | CIA FACTBOOK

Illicit drugs:
Major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos


Economy – overview:
Romania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, began the transition from communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country’s needs. Romania’s macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania’s widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment.

In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, Romania signed a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders, but GDP contracted until 2011. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary standby agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability; no funds were drawn. In September 2013, Romanian authorities and the IMF/EU agreed to a follow-on standby agreement, worth $5.4 billion, to continue with reforms. This agreement expired in September 2015, and no funds were drawn. Progress on structural reforms has been uneven, and the economy still is vulnerable to external shocks.

Disputes – international:
The ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine’s reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea

National anthem: “Desteapta-te romane!” (Wake up, Romanian!)
Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley Bagley

International Center for Missing & Exploited Children | Director
Regis College | B.A. in French & Spanish (graduated 1974)
Department of State | Congressional Liaison Officer (1977 – 1979)
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe | Congressional Liaison (1980 – 1981)
Department of State | Ambassador to Portugal (1994 – 1997)
Department of State | Senior Advisor to the Secretary of State Madeleine Albright (1997 – 2001) during which time she established and headed the Office of Media Programming Acquisition in the “newly independent” Balkan States and served as Senate liaison for NATO Enlargement.
Department of State | Special Representative for Global Partnerships (2009 – 2013)
Department of State | Senior Advisor for Secretary’s Initiatives in the Office of the Secretary of State under John Kerry

U.N. General Assembly | U.S. Representative
US Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy | Vice Chair
Democratic National Committee | Chair, National Advisory Board

Council on Foreign Relations | Associate Director, Task Force on Democracy
Foreign Affairs Museum Council | Member
The Atlantic Council of the United States | Member, Board of Directors (Current)
Securing America’s Future Energy | Co-Chair, Diplomatic Council on Energy Security
National Democratic Institute for International Affairs | Member, Board of Directors (Current)
The American Ireland Fund | Member, Board of Directors (Current)

Smith Bagley, Inc. | Director
Clinton Community Library | Chair, Board of Trustees (past)

Clinton Foundation Donations

Smith and Elizabeth Bagley | $1,000,001 – $5,000,000 to the Clinton foundation | The Clinton Foundation: The Contributors
Smith Bagley, Inc. doing business as CellularOne | $50,000 – $100,000 to the Clinton Foundation
The American Ireland Fund | $250,000-$500,000


Smith Bagley provides commercial mobile wireless service in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah, and has extensive wireless coverage throughout Native American lands, including federally recognized tribal lands such as the Navajo Nation and the White Mountain Apache Indian Reservation.

Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley Bagley | SKOLL

From 1994 to 1997, she served as the U.S. Ambassador to Portugal. Ambassador Bagley is a longstanding member of The Council on Foreign Relations and the Clinton Library Foundation.

She served as Senior Advisor under former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright where she established and headed the Office of Media Programming Acquisition for the newly independent Balkan states.

Ambassador Bagley was sworn in as Special Representative for Global Partnerships in the Office of the Secretary of State on June 18, 2009.

On Public-Private Partnerships: A Conversation with Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley Bagley | DELOITTE REVIEW | 2010

The past several decades have witnessed a marked shift in sources of foreign aid. Whereas the bulk of the money flowing from the United States to the developing world in the 1960s was official development assistance, today over 80 percent of it comes from private sources. In response to the increased role the private sector and civil society are playing in international development, the U.S. Department of State is shifting the way it views the department’s role in advancing U.S. foreign policy objectives.

To better integrate the development work being undertaken across regions and by different sectors, the State Department has created a new office under Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton responsible for creating partnerships with individuals, businesses and not-for-profit organizations around issues of common interest ranging from food security to HIV/AIDS.

To lead this effort, Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley Bagley was appointed Special Representative for Global Partnerships. In this role, she leads the State Department’s new Global Partnership Initiative, making public-private partnerships a core component of diplomacy. A seasoned diplomat, Ambassador Bagley comes to this newly created position having previously served as Senior Advisor to Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and as U.S. Ambassador to Portugal.

WIKILEAKS – PODESTA – a new generation of donors
CNN – Fundraising with stars at the home of Elizabeth Bagley


OUR HISTORY | Responding to tragedy

The International Center for Missing & Exploited Children held its first Board of Directors meeting in May 1998. It was officially launched in April 1999 by Hillary Clinton, then-First Lady of the United States, and Cherie Blair, wife of British Prime Minister Tony Blair.

ICMEC was born out of tragedy, created as a reaction to heinous crimes committed against children. Since our inception, we have worked to safeguard children from abduction, sexual abuse and exploitation, partnering with governments, academia, law enforcement, and the NGO community, to offer a range of practical measures that protect children.

Since we opened our doors to the world we have trained over 7,500 law enforcement officers. We have contributed substantially to both new and refined laws against child pornography in 100 countries. We have expanded the Global Missing Children’s Network; 24 countries are now members. We have advocated for the commemoration of International Missing Children’s Day, which is presently recognized on May 25th in 17 countries across four continents. And we have expanded our global partnerships.





Keep this in mind. Elizabeth Frawley Bagley | Senior Advisor to former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright

Returning to Organized Crime
The Spoils of War: Afghanistan’s Multibillion Dollar Heroin Trade | Washington’s Hidden Agenda: Restore the Drug Trade | GLOBAL RESEARCH.

In 2014 the Afghan opium cultivation has once again hit a record high, according to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime’s 2014 Afghan Opium Survey.


Post 9/11 Afghanistan: Opium Cultivation, Production Increases Nearly 20-Fold | BREITBART | SEP 11, 2016

Opium cultivation and production has thrived over the course of the Afghanistan war despite a dramatic drop after the U.S. and NATO ended their combat mission in Afghanistan and withdrew most of their troops at the end of 2014.

Amid the ongoing heroin epidemic in the United States that is killing thousands, the White House and other government agencies have sounded the alarm on Afghanistan heroin possibly flowing into the U.S. through Canada, where most of the heroin available is from Afghanistan.


Tasked With Combating Opium, Afghan Officials Profit From It | NEW YORK TIMES | FEB 15, 2016

 More than ever, Afghan government officials have become directly involved in the opium trade, expanding their competition with the Taliban beyond politics and into a struggle for control of the drug traffic and revenue.

Middle Eastern Transnational Organized Crime Groups | FBI

Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the FBI has taken a new look at the various criminal threats originating in the Middle East and from Middle Eastern communities in the United States. The Bureau, and law enforcement in general, recognize that Middle Eastern criminal groups often have no direct nexus to terror. Rather, these groups frequently have the same goals as any traditional organized crime ring—to make money through illegal activities.

Criminal groups with associations to the Middle East have been active in the U.S. since at least the 1970s, particularly in areas with significant Middle Eastern or Southwest Asian populations. These organizations are typically loosely organized theft or financial fraud rings formed along familial or tribal lines, and include criminals from Afghanistan, Egypt, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. They typically use small storefronts as bases for criminal operations.


Eve Branson: Mrs. Branson was a founding board member of ICMEC in 1999 and served on the first board of directors until 2005. She is also the mother of Sir Richard Branson who was ICMEC’s founding sponsor. Last month she released her new autobiography “Mums the Word.” Mrs. Branson also heads the Eve Branson Foundation which works to improve the lives of women and girls in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley Bagley: Ambassador Bagley served as the Special Representative for Global Partnerships for the U.S. State Department from 2009 until 2013. She is an attorney specializing in international law, was an Adjunct Law Professor at Georgetown University, was a Senior Advisor to former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and served as the US Ambassador to Portugal.



What travel ban? The Obamas visit neighboring island with billionaire host Richard Branson during second week of holiday on his private island | DAILY MAIL
Leading the Global Partnership Initiative: Insights from Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley Bagley | IBM CENTER FOR THE BUSINESSS OF GOVERNMENT | SPRING 2010

Leading the global partnership initiative: insights from Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley Bagley

Strengthening America’s Global Development Partnerships: A Policy Blueprint for Better Collaboration Between the U.S. Government, Business and Civil Society | BROOKINGS
Early Progress on Reform and Partnerships

Only a few months into their tenures, the Obama administration and the 111th Congress have already initiated efforts that present opportunities to strengthen America’s global development partnerships. Since taking office, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton has consistently voiced her support for making development an equal partner, along with defense and diplomacy, in advancing U.S. national security. In April 2009, she also announced the launch of the Global Partnership Initiative to facilitate the expansion of current partnerships with business and non-governmental organizations and the creation of new ones. Additionally, Secretary Clinton’s designation of Elizabeth Bagley, a politically connected diplomat, to lead the initiative along with Kris Balderston, one of Clinton’s close advisers, serves as a sign of her significant interest in this area.

In May 2009, the President announced a $63 billion commitment over six years to tackle global health issues such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and maternal health, building on the success of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), one of the most significant foreign assistance programs of the previous administration. It is still unclear what shape these nascent efforts will take as they develop, and President Obama’s designee to head USAID should figure prominently in guiding foreign assistance reform, but early signs indicate clear recognition of the need and opportunity to strengthen partnerships

On Public-Private Partnerships: A Conversation with Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley Bagley | DELOITTE REVIEW | 2010

The past several decades have witnessed a marked shift in sources of foreign aid. Whereas the bulk of the money flowing from the United States to the developing world in the 1960s was official development assistance, today over 80 percent of it comes from private sources. In response to the increased role the private sector and civil society are playing in international development, the U.S. Department of State is shifting the way it views the department’s role in advancing U.S. foreign policy objectives.

To better integrate the development work being undertaken across regions and by different sectors, the State Department has created a new office under Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton responsible for creating partnerships with individuals, businesses and not-for-profit organizations around issues of common interest ranging from food security to HIV/AIDS.

To lead this effort, Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley Bagley was appointed Special Representative for Global Partnerships. In this role, she leads the State Department’s new Global Partnership Initiative, making public-private partnerships a core component of diplomacy. A seasoned diplomat, Ambassador Bagley comes to this newly created position having previously served as Senior Advisor to Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and as U.S. Ambassador to Portugal.

Q: in the 1960s, nearly 70 Percent of all the money flowing from the united states to the developing world was official development assistance. today over 80 Percent is from Private sources. How did that come about and what are the implications for our foreign Policy?

BAGLEY: It is an amazing figure. This came about because more and more corporations, foundations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were entering these countries. I think it came about due to the globalization of the world economy. Even though we’ve scaled up on what we do as a government, the big development is the proliferation of companies, nonprofts, for-profts and foundations. It just shows how the world has changed. Foreign policy is not just made by governments anymore.

Q: How do you balance the needs of companies, the role of the government and the needs of the country involved?

BAGLEY: I think companies have realized that they can’t exploit the local market. It’s not only not good moral practice but it’s not good business, because if you go in and basically ravage a country, you’re not getting anything out of it. You’re not developing sustainable solutions for whatever business you’re involved in. I think companies realize as we do this that they can’t do it alone, that they need us to be there with them to be partners and that they have to be more strategic about how they do business. They have to be more socially responsible than in the old days.


Clinton Foundation Donations

Smith and Elizabeth Bagley | $1,000,001 – $5,000,000 to the Clinton foundation | The Clinton Foundation: The Contributors
Smith Bagley, Inc. doing business as CellularOne | $50,000 – $100,000 to the Clinton Foundation
The American Ireland Fund | $250,000-$500,000


Smith Bagley provides commercial mobile wireless service in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah, and has extensive wireless coverage throughout Native American lands, including federally recognized tribal lands such as the Navajo Nation and the White Mountain Apache Indian Reservation.

WIKILEAKS – PODESTA – a new generation of donors
CNN – Fundraising with stars at the home of Elizabeth Bagley

Andre Pienaar

Good Governance Group (G3) | Founder
C5 Capital (partnered with Amazon Web Services) | Founder
Kroll | Manager, Africa & Natural Resources Division
BAE Systems | Contractor for BAE through C5 Capital
United States Institute of Peace | Board of Advisors

Alain Mérieux

Fondation Mérieux | President

Fondation Christophe et Rodolphe Mérieux | President (2001 – present)

The two independent family foundations are dedicated to the fight against infectious diseases in developing countries. In 1994, Fondation Mérieux created the “P4 Jean Mérieux” BSL4 maximum-security laboratory in Lyon, which is managed today by Inserm.

Institut Mérieux | Chairman | Bioindustrial group comprising 5 companies dedicated to global public health:

Mérieux NutriSciences
ABL, Inc.
Mérieux Développement

The Mérieux family has over a century of experience in infectious diseases in the field of vaccines and in vitro diagnostics.

In 1963, with Becton Dickinson, he created BD Mérieux, specialized in in vitro diagnostic solutions. He became majority shareholder in 1974 and changed the name to bioMérieux. The company is present today in more than 150 countries with over 7,700 employees. From 1968 to 1994, Alain Mérieux was Chairman and CEO of Institut Mérieux, taking the group to the position of world leader in the field of human and veterinary vaccines.

He acquired Institut Pasteur Production in France in 1985 and Connaught Laboratories in North America in 1989.

From 1986 to 1998, he was also the First Vice President of the Rhône-Alpes Regional Assembly (France), in charge of International Relations, Economic Development, Research and Higher Education.

Fondation Mérieux USA $10,001 – $25,000

Honors and Awards:

  • National Order of the Southern Cross of Brazil (1974)
  • Commander of the National Order of Merit of France (1994)
  • Commander of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland (1998)
  • Commander of the National Order of Mali as a Foreigner (2004)
  • Commander of the Legion of Honor of France (2004)
  • Officer of the National Order of Burkina Faso (2014).

Amanda Gutkin | Strategic Business Advisor – Middle East

GRG Partners | Co-Founder | A consultancy firm specializing in intermediation and fundraising for corporate acquisitions and high-end real estate development projects with a focus on the Middle East, Africa, the UK and the US

Global Virus Network | Senior Advisor, UAE


Global Virus Network | Senior Advisor, UAE

Raymond Schinazi | Board of Directors
Prudence Bushnell | Senior Advisor

nvironmental causes and impacts of the genocide in Rwanda | ACCORD | OCT 26, 2010

Empirical evidence obtained and secondary data sources indicate that the genocide in Rwanda destroyed not only human resources and social and cultural structures but also infrastructure, development facilities and natural resources which had serious negative consequences on the total environment.

Spread of malaria

The primary research also shows that malaria has now become evident in Cyangugu and other areas where previously this was rare. Most leaders reported that after the genocide malaria posed a significant problem with serious consequences for much of the population. Leaders attributed the prevalence of the disease to poor environmental management and poverty.

Poverty, Global Health and Infectious Disease: Lessons from Haiti and Rwanda | NCBI | SEP 1, 2012

As demonstrated above, poverty and associated disease rarely arise de novo. Heavy burdens of disease predictably strike those places, most often resource-poor communities, where structural violence weighs most heavily. Moreover, structural violence—institutionalized biases and inequalities including racism, elitism, gender inequality, militarism, and economic policy that fosters inequity—often emanates from global centers of power and privilege, and increases the risk of encounter with communicable disease [18].

In 1996, Prudence Bushnell was appointed ambassador to Kenya.

Stationed at the US Embassy in Nairobi, she used her office to push Kenyan President Daniel arap Moi to institute democratic reforms and to root out corruption in his government, a major drag on Kenya’s economy.

Bushnell soon became alarmed at the vulnerability of the U.S. embassy compound to attack.

Before Bombings, Omens and Fears | NEW YORK TIMES | JAN 9, 1999

In the spring of 1998, Prudence Bushnell, the U.S. ambassador to Kenya, sent an emotional letter to Secretary of State Madeleine Albright begging for the secretary’s personal help.

Ms. Bushnell, a career diplomat, had been fighting for months for a more secure embassy in the face of mounting terrorist threats and a warning that she was the target of an assassination plot.

The department had repeatedly refused to grant her request, citing a lack of money. But that kind of response, she wrote Albright, was “endangering the lives of embassy personnel.”

The CIA and the FBI had been amassing increasingly ominous and detailed clues about potential threats in Kenya, officials said. But the State Department bureaucracy still dismissed Ms. Bushnell.

Albright took no action. And three months later, on Aug. 7, the American Embassies in Tanzania and Kenya were simultaneously attacked with car bombs. Twelve American diplomats and more than 200 Africans were killed in Kenya.

The State Department has acknowledged that Ms. Bushnell raised questions about security before the bombing. But a close examination of events in the year before the assaults, based on interviews with officials throughout the U.S. government, shows her concerns were more intense, more well-founded, more specific, and more forcefully expressed than has previously been known.

The CIA repeatedly told State Department officials in Washington and in the Kenya Embassy that there was an active terrorist cell in Kenya connected to Osama bin Laden, the Saudi exile who is accused of masterminding the attack.

The CIA and FBI investigated at least three terrorist threats in Nairobi in the year before the bombing and took one seriously enough to send a counter-terrorism team from CIA headquarters. The agency ultimately concluded that threat was unfounded, but some officials believe the inquiry was botched, and the agency’s inspector general is investigating how it was handled.

State Department officials brushed aside Gen. Anthony Zinni, commander of the U.S. Central Command, who had visited Nairobi on his own and warned that the Nairobi embassy was an easy and tempting target for terrorists. Zinni’s offer to send his own specialists to review security in Nairobi was turned down by the State Department.

Bombs Explode at 2 U.S. Embassies in Africa; Scores Dead | WASHINGTON POST | AUG 8, 1998

Powerful terrorist car bombs exploded just minutes apart outside U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania yesterday, killing at least 81 people — including eight Americans — and injuring more than 1,600. With dozens more Kenyans possibly buried in the rubble of a building next to the embassy, authorities said they fear the death toll could rise much higher.

As U.S. disaster relief units and anti-terrorism specialists were rushed to the two East African capitals, President Clinton angrily vowed to bring justice to those who committed the “cowardly attacks.”

Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright rushed back to Washington, stating that the administration will “spare no effort to use all means at our disposal to track down and punish the perpetrators of these outrageous acts.”

House Speaker Newt Gingrich said the bombings “should be a reminder to all of us that it is a dangerous world as we enter the 21st century. We need much better human intelligence, much more sophisticated efforts to go after terrorists and others.”

U.S. received detailed warning of embassy bombing, officials say Egyptian man reportedly told of plans 9 months before Kenya attack | BALTIMORE SUN | OCT 23, 1998

NAIROBI, Kenya — Nine months before the attack on the American Embassy here, U.S. intelligence officials received a detailed warning that Islamic radicals were plotting to blow up the building, according to Kenyan and American officials.

The warning forecast the Aug. 7 bombing in several particulars, the officials said. It came from an Egyptian man who American officials now believe was involved in the simultaneous terrorist assaults on the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.

The Egyptian, Mustafa Mahmoud Said Ahmed, is now in jail in Tanzania, charged by local prosecutors with bombing the embassy there.

Tanzanian authorities have not allowed Ahmed to be interviewed, and it was unclear what motivated him to alert authorities about a plot in which he appears to have played a role. He told the Kenyans that in the past he had provided authorities with information about Islamic radicals because he wanted to see them arrested and rehabilitated rather than caught committing a crime for which they would be executed.

A Tanzanian court refused to release Ahmed on bail this week and ruled that FBI agents would be permitted to interrogate him.

Tanzanian investigators suspect he was a central figure in the plot.

The Clinton administration has not sought to extradite Ahmed from Tanzania. Several non-American diplomats in the region speculated that the United States is allowing the Tanzanians to try Ahmed because they fear his trial in America might bring to light his dealings with U.S. authorities and other Western intelligence services.

In the days after the bombings, the administration acknowledged that it had spurned requests from the American ambassador in Kenya, Prudence Bushnell, to move the entire embassy to a safer location. The State Department would not say whether her cables mentioned Ahmed’s warning.

Warnings to the FBI: Could the Bombings Have Been Prevented? | PBS

A year before the U.S. embassy bombings in East Africa, the FBI and the Kenya police raided the house of Wadih El Hage in Nairobi, Kenya in August of 1997 and found a very disturbing letter on his computer hard drive. The letter, which the FBI believes was written by Fazul Abdullah Mohammed, AKA Haroun Fazul, outlines the presence of a bin Laden terrorist “cell” in Nairobi and clearly states the member’s knowledge of bin Laden’s call to kill Americans.

The Warnings

As early as 1994, United States intelligence officials were receiving worrisome reports about Osama bin Laden.

By 1996, the United States Justice Department quietly convened a grand jury in New York to investigate Osama bin Laden, and FBI investigators began building a case against him.

The CIA was simultaneously gathering intelligence about bin Laden and his associates.

Some of this evidence led the investigators to Kenya. In Kenya, there were two concrete warnings about an embassy attack during 1997.

According to intelligence sources, the CIA and FBI kept U.S. Ambassador to Kenya Prudence Bushnell and her staff fully informed about the warnings and the possible threat.

However, some embassy officials dispute this, saying they were not kept in the loop about the seriousness of the threat.

Throughout this period, Bushnell was pleading with the State Department to provide a new building or seriously upgrade security at the old building.

The State Department did not consider Nairobi a high-risk location and ignored Bushnell’s pleas.

The Letter

Summer, 1997 — Wadih El Hage, who worked as a secretary for bin Laden in the Sudan, was found to be living in Nairobi, Kenya.

The FBI, CIA and Kenyan police cooperated on the August, 1997 raid on Wadih El Hage’s home. Under the pretext of searching for stolen goods, they entered the house and took Mr. El Hage’s computer.

On the hard drive of that computer, investigators found a chilling letter, which they now believe was written by El Hage’s houseguest, Fazul Abdullah Mohammed or Haroun Fazul. Fazul was also linked to bin Laden in the Sudan and had been living with the El Hage family in Kenya.

The letter clearly outlines the presence of a clandestine “cell” in Nairobi, operating under the instructions of “the Haj” or Osama bin Laden.

Just after the raid, the investigators interviewed Wadih El Hage in Nairobi. According to El Hage’s mother-in-law, the FBI repeatedly told both El Hage and his wife to leave the country. The agents insinuated that the family was in danger should they remain in the country. El Hage took them seriously and returned to the United States with his family in September of 1997.

It is unclear whether the investigators knew about Haroun Fazul at this time, or understood that he had been the author of the letter. Fazul somehow escaped their notice and continued his activities in Nairobi.He would later be declared the mastermind of the Nairobi bombing. In fact, on the day of the actual bombing, he drove the lead truck that led the bomb to the United States Embassy.

Mustafa Mahmoud Said Ahmed

November, 1997 – Near the end of 1997, an Egyptian named Mustafa Mahmoud Said Ahmed walked into the United States Embassy in Nairobi and told a CIA agent that he knew of a plan to detonate a truck bomb in the parking garage of the embassy.

He was interrogated by Kenyan police and admitted that he had taken part in surveillance of the embassy, including taking photos.

For unknown reasons, the CIA did not take Mr. Ahmed’s statements seriously and he was deported. The CIA issued two intelligence reports on the warning, but called into question the credibility of Mr. Ahmed.

Mr. Ahmed was arrested in Tanzania just after the 1998 summer bombings and has been charged in conjunction with the Dar Es Salaam bombing attack.

John O. Brennan

His term as CIA Director coincided with revelations that the U.S. government conducted massive levels of global surveillance, that the CIA had hacked into the computers of U.S. Senate employees, and the release of the U.S. Senate Intelligence Committee report on CIA torture.

While riding a bus to class at Fordham, he saw an ad in The New York Times that said the CIA was recruiting, and he felt a CIA career would be a good match for his “wanderlust” and his desire to do public service.[6] His studies included a junior year abroad learning Arabic and taking Middle Eastern studies courses at the American University in Cairo.[4][6] In 1976, he voted for Communist Party USA candidate Gus Hall in the presidential election; he later said that he viewed it as a way “of signaling my unhappiness with the system, and the need for change.”[16]

Brennan began his CIA career as an analyst, presumably in the Washington D.C. area, and spent 25 years with the agency.[2][6][18] At one point in his career, he was a daily intelligence briefer for President Bill Clinton.[6] In 1996 he was CIA station chief in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia when the Khobar Towers bombing killed 19 U.S. servicemen.[6] In 1999 he was appointed chief of staff to George Tenet, then-Director of the CIA.[4][6] Brennan became deputy executive director of the CIA in March 2001.[4] He was director of the newly created Terrorist Threat Integration Center from 2003 to 2004, an office that sifted through and compiled information for President Bush’s daily top secret intelligence briefings and employed the services of analysts from a dozen U.S. agencies and entities.[19]

Pasquale “Pat” D’Amuro | BLOOMBERG

Much of Mr. D’Amuro’s twenty-six year career in the FBI has been devoted to counterterrorism, in which he is an internationally recognized expert.

After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Mr. D’Amuro was appointed Inspector in Charge of the FBI’s investigation of those attacks.

Mr. D’Amuro served as Assistant Director of the Counterterrorism Division at FBI Headquarters and, later, Executive Assistant Director for Counterterrorism and Counterintelligence. In these capacities, he was instrumental in the creation and management of the FBI’s Terrorism Threat Integration Center and Terrorism Watch List.

Global Risk & Investigative Diligence, LLC | Chairman & CEO
Giuliani Security & Safety LLC, a division of Giuliani Partners LLC | Chairman & CEO (former)
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) | Assistant Director in Charge of the New York FBI Office

Decision Sciences | Chairman of the Board of Advisors.


“Pat’s long experience in conducting counterterrorism investigations includes heading the PENTTBOM investigation and overseeing the investigations of the first World Trade Center bombing, the embassy bombings in East Africa, and the U.S.S. Cole attack. He possesses strong leadership abilities, demonstrated during his tenure as Associate Special Agent in Charge and Acting Special Agent in Charge of the New York Field Office. These investigative and leadership talents, refined by the experience of a 22-year career as a Special Agent of the FBI, make him well prepared to take on the challenge of directing the Counterterrorism Division during a critical period of reorganization and refocusing of the work of the FBI.”


Decision Sciences | Board of Advisors
The Aspen Institute | Member
The Trilateral Commission | Member
The Council on Foreign Relations | Member

Department of Justice, District of Brooklyn | Counsel to the Attorney General for Intelligence Policy (1985 – 1988) | Mentored by Rudolph Giuliani and FBI Director Louis Freeh.
Department of Justice, Southern District of New York | US Attorney International Organized Crime and White Collar Crime (1988 – 1991)

Department of Justice, Office of the Attorney General

International Programs | (1991  1993) to assist in establishing the newly created Office of International Programs, the predecessor to the Executive Office for National Security.
Chief of Staff to the Assistance Attorney General, Criminal Division | (1993  1995) played a critical role in establishing the Division’s international training and rule of law programs.
Director of International Affairs, Criminal Division | (1995 – 1997) | which serves as the U. S. Central Authority for extradition and mutual legal assistance, and works with the Department of State in the negotiation of international law enforcement treaties.
Acting Deputy Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division | (1997  1998) where she oversaw international law enforcement and training matters, and acted as an advisor to the Attorney General and Deputy Attorney General on international law enforcement policy.
Advisor to the Attorney General & Deputy Attorney General for International Law Enforcement Policy | (1997  1998)
Counsel to AG, Office of Intelligence Policy and Review for National Security Policy & Operations | (1998 – 2000) managing matters related to national security policy and operations for the Department of Justice. In this capacity she headed the office of Intelligence Policy and Review, an office that:

provides legal advice and recommendations to the Attorney General and the Department of Justice regarding national security matters, reviews executive orders, directives and procedures relating to the intelligence community, and approves certain intelligence-gathering activities, especially those matters related to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.

Executive Office of the President 

Deputy Assistant to the President & Deputy National Security Advisor For Combating Terrorism | (2003 – 2004)
Assistant to President George W. Bush for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism | (2004 – 2008)

US Coast Guard |  Assistant Commandant for Intelligence (2000  2003)
Homeland Security Council | Chairman | (2004 – 2008)
Intelligence and National Security Alliance (INSA) | Chairman of Board of Directors

Protiviti Inc. | Advisory Board | (2015 – present)
IrisGuard Incorporated | Advisory Board
MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings, Inc. | Executive Vice President of Worldwide Government, Legal and Business Affairs
Aquamarine Investment Partners | Senior Counselor
SAP National Security Services, Inc. | Chair
Monument Capital Group, LLC | Operating Advisor
Freeport-McMoRan Inc. | Independent Director
The Western Union Company | Independent Director
SIGA Technologies | Director | (2011 – 2014)
Business Executives for National Security, Inc.  | Director
Bipartisan Policy Center | Director
Baker Botts L.L.P. | Corporate Partner
CNN | National Security Expert Analys

An Outsider’s Quick Rise To Bush Terror Adviser – Frances Townsend | WASHINGTON POST | AUG 27, 2005

In September of 2001, she worked for the Coast Guard as the intelligence chief. At the time, the Coast Guard was not part of the “intelligence community” and thus was not allowed to share sensitive information.

She helped the Coast Guard get added to intelligence legislation and transformed the agency’s priority from South American drug-smuggling to the vulnerability of America’s ports.

In Spring of 2003, Richard Clarke and General John A Gordon (Bush’s Homeland Security Chief) lobbied for Townsend, and as a result she was hired on to the National Security Council.

“Frances Townsend runs President Bush’s far-flung campaign against terrorism.”

“She obviously has the confidence of the president, and that has a huge impact on her ability to influence the process,” said Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff.

She is the ‘coordinator, the facilitator, the bridge,’ as FBI Director Robert S. Mueller III put it, between the powerful institutions and clashing egos of a war cabinet.

Among her many mentors, she counts Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, longtime FBI Director Louis J. Freeh and former White House counterterrorism czar Richard A. Clarke.

“Townsend has overseen an intelligence reorganization and is now directing the first White House review of its anti-terrorism campaign since the aftermath of Sept. 11, a process intended to broaden the struggle into a new ‘strategy against violent extremism.”

Until a few months prior to 9/11, she had run the Justice Department’s Office of Intelligence Policy and Review that decided which cases merited supersecret intelligence wiretaps, work that took her inside al Qaeda cases, such as the 1998 embassy bombings in Africa.”

Her office would be a focus of controversy after Sept. 11. As the gatekeeper for intelligence wiretap requests, Townsend’s office fought efforts to invoke the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act in matters that could result in criminal cases, fearing that prosecutors would use such surveillance to circumvent the more difficult threshold for obtaining a criminal wiretap. In practical terms, the result was what commission reports called “The Wall,” fencing off investigators from potentially useful information about suspects on American soil.

In an example cited by a bipartisan congressional commission, Townsend refused to endorse a secret intelligence wiretap on Los Alamos National Laboratories scientist Wen Ho Lee because the FBI’s interest in the case was “way too criminal.”

Secret Court’s Judges Were Warned About NSA Spy Data | WASHINGTON POST page 1 | WASHINGTON POST page 2 | FEB 9, 2006

FISA court is the secret panel created in 1978 in response to a public outcry over warrantless domestic spying by J. Edgar Hoover’s FBI

The FISA court secretly grants warrants for wiretaps, telephone record traces and physical searches to the Justice Department.

Both judges had insisted that no information obtained this way be used to gain warrants from their court, according to government sources, and both had been assured by administration officials it would never happen.

Both presiding judges agreed not to disclose the secret program to the 10 other FISA judges, who routinely handled some of the government’s most highly classified secrets.

The two heads of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court were the only judges in the country briefed by the administration on Bush’s program. The president’s secret order allows the National Security Agency to monitor telephone calls and e-mails between people in the United States and contacts overseas.

They convinced the judges to swear to secrecy, then they lied to them.

Twice in the past four years (2002-2006), a top Justice Department lawyer warned the presiding judge of a secret surveillance court that information overheard in President Bush’s eavesdropping program may have been improperly used to obtain wiretap warrants in the court, according to two sources with knowledge of those events.

Between 1979 and 2004, it approved 18,748 warrants and rejected five.

So early in 2002, they decided that any case in which the government listened to someone’s calls without a warrant, and later developed information to seek a FISA warrant for that same suspect, was to be carefully “tagged” as having involved some NSA information.

Shortly after the warrantless eavesdropping program began, then-NSA Director Michael V. Hayden and Ashcroft made clear in private meetings that the president wanted to detect possible terrorist activity before another attack. They also made clear that, in such a broad hunt for suspicious patterns and activities, the government could never meet the FISA court’s probable-cause requirement, government officials said.

Townsend lied.


The nation’s secret intelligence court has identified more than 75 cases in which it says it was misled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in documents in which the bureau attempted to justify its need for wiretaps and other electronic surveillance, according to the first of the court’s rulings to be released publicly.

In its opinion, the court rejected a secret request made by the Justice Department this year to allow broader cooperation and evidence-sharing between counterintelligence investigators and criminal prosecutors.

FBI. and the Justice Department tried to defy the will of Congress by allowing intelligence material to be shared freely with criminal investigators.

The standards of evidence required for electronic surveillance are much lower in many intelligence investigations than in criminal investigations, the authors of the law wanted to prevent the dissemination of intelligence information to criminal investigators or prosecutors.

In a number of cases the FBI and the Justice Department had made ”erroneous statements” in eavesdropping applications about ”the separation of the overlapping intelligence and criminal investigators and the unauthorized sharing of FISA information with FBI criminal investigators and assistant U.S. attorneys.

The court said that the FBI and the Justice Department were violating the law by allowing information gathered from intelligence eavesdrops to be used freely in bringing criminal charges, without court review, and that criminal investigators were improperly directing the use of counterintelligence wiretaps.

In one case, it said, the error appeared in a statement issued by the office of Louis J. Freeh, then the FBI director, in which the bureau said that target of an intelligence eavesdropping request ”was not under criminal investigation.”

In March of 2001, the court said, ”the government reported similar misstatements in another series of FISA applications in which there was supposed to be a ‘wall’ between separate intelligence and criminal squads in FBI field offices to screen FISA intercepts, when in fact all of the FBI agents were on the same squad and all of the screening was done by the one supervisor overseeing both investigations.”

Bush Lets U.S. Spy on Callers Without Courts | NEW YORK TIMES | DEC 16, 2005

Months after the Sept. 11 attacks, President Bush secretly authorized the National Security Agency to eavesdrop on Americans and others inside the United States to search for evidence of terrorist activity without the court-approved warrants ordinarily required for domestic spying, according to government officials.

The previously undisclosed decision to permit some eavesdropping inside the country without court approval was a major shift in American intelligence-gathering practices, particularly for the National Security Agency, whose mission is to spy on communications abroad.

Nearly a dozen current and former officials, who were granted anonymity because of the classified nature of the program, discussed it with reporters for The New York Times because of their concerns about the operation’s legality and oversight.

Administration officials are confident that existing safeguards are sufficient to protect the privacy and civil liberties of Americans.

The White House asked The New York Times not to publish this article, arguing that it could jeopardize continuing investigations and alert would-be terrorists that they might be under scrutiny.

President Bush significantly eased limits on American intelligence and law enforcement agencies and the military.

The NSA breaks codes and maintains listening posts around the world to eavesdrop on foreign governments, diplomats and trade negotiators as well as drug lords and terrorists.

Traditionally, the FBI, not the NSA, seeks such warrants and conducts most domestic eavesdropping. Until the new program began, the N.S.A. typically limited its domestic surveillance to foreign embassies and missions in Washington, New York and other cities, and obtained court orders to do so.

Since 2002, the agency has been conducting some warrantless eavesdropping on people in the United States.

FBI Announces Restructuring | FBI | JUL 26, 2006

Director Robert S. Mueller announced structural changes to support the next phase of the FBI’s transformation efforts.

Director Mueller said, “The initial phase of our post-9/11 transformation was our immediate response to the new terrorist threat. The next phase focused on developing enhanced intelligence capabilities.

“Today we are aligning our organization to better support our priorities. This includes a strategic approach to human resources, IT, science and technology, facilities, and budget. This last phase is about institutionalizing the changes we have made to date, and building a foundation to support us into the future.

The FBI began a huge transformation after 9/11. The Bureau’s leadership shifted their focus from fighting conventional crime to fighting terrorism. Director Robert Mueller, describes the structural change as three phases.

Phase 1: The immediate response to 9/11, which included the investigation, establishment of new priorities and the shift toward countering terrorism.

Phase 2: Developed enhanced intelligence capabilities, including the creation of the Directorate of Intelligence and doubled the number of intelligence analysts.

Phase 3: Institutionalizing the changes made to date by altering the command structure to meet the demands of our increased pace of operations and build the foundation for the future.

In July, 2006, Mueller publicly announced the FBI’s advance into the final phase.

A Redeployment at a Realigned FBI | LA TIMES | JUL 27, 2006

WASHINGTON — The FBI broke with one of its most storied traditions Wednesday, announcing changes in its top management that, rather than elevating onetime agents, tapped officials with extensive experience outside of the bureau for several key positions.

Former officials of BP, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the CIA are named to lead branches as the bureau shifts its focus from crime to terrorism. – The changes leave FBI careerists in charge of the bureau’s criminal and intelligence branches. Mueller also named a longtime agent to fill a new position of associate deputy director, but he created three positions that he filled with bureau employees who made their mark elsewhere:

Donald E. Packham, a former BP senior executive, will oversee human resources and training.

Kerry E. Haynes, a former CIA director of technical collection, was picked to run a new science and technology branch.
Chief Information Officer Zalmai Azmi, whose resume includes a stint as a project manager at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, was given expanded duties in his role overseeing the bureau’s computer operations.

Mueller also established a unit to study threats from weapons of mass destruction and named Vahid Majidi, a scientist formerly at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, as its director.

An Outsider’s Quick Rise To Bush Terror Adviser – Frances Townsend | WASHINGTON POST | AUG 27, 2005

“Townsend has overseen an intelligence reorganization and is now directing the first White House review of its anti-terrorism campaign since the aftermath of Sept. 11, a process intended to broaden the struggle into a new ‘strategy against violent extremism.”

Frances Townsend is important.

Returning to the embassy bombings.
1998 US Embassies in Africa Bombings Fast Facts | CNN | JULY 27, 2015

August 7, 1998 – Almost simultaneously, bombs explode at U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, killing 224 people. More than 5,000 are wounded. Twelve of those killed in Kenya are U.S. citizens.

August 20, 1998 – The U.S. launches cruise missiles at suspected terrorist targets in Afghanistan and Sudan, in retaliation for the embassy bombings.

Africa embassy bombings: attacks that propelled Bin Laden into the limelight | THE GUARDIAN | JAN 20, 2015

On 20 August 1998, the factory was destroyed in cruise missile strikes launched by the United States military allegedly in retaliation for the truck bombattacks on its embassies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi, Kenya on 7 August. The administration of President Bill Clinton justified the attacks, dubbed Operation Infinite Reach, on the grounds that the al-Shifa plant was involved with processing the deadly nerve agent VX, and had ties with the Islamist al-Qaeda group of Osama bin Laden.

Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory

The Al-Shifa (الشفاء, Arabic for “healing”) pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum North, Sudan, was constructed between 1992 and 1996 with components imported from Germany, India, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand and the United States. It was opened 12 July 1997.

U.S. missiles pound targets in Afghanistan, Sudan | CNN | AUG 20, 1998

Sudanese television showed piles of rubble at the factory and fire raging in the distance. People were seen walking through the damage, wearing masks.

Sudanese officials reacted angrily to the attacks. Interior Minister Abdul Rahim told CNN in a telephone interview that the privately owned pharmaceutical firm had “nothing to do with chemical weapons.”

“We have no chemical weapons factory in our country,” he said.

A statement read on Sudanese television about an hour after the attack said, “The wrongful American air force launched air attacks on Sudan tonight which aimed at strategic and vital areas.” There was no report as to the number of casualties.

Well he wasn’t lying. They didn’t have any.

The Missiles of August | NEW YORKER | OCT 12, 1998

“The Sudanese plant, depicted by the White House as a chemical-warfare facility, was one of 2 targets in a retaliatory raid against Saudi terrorist Osama bin Laden, who was linked to the bombings of American Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania earlier that month; Tomahawks were also fired at sites in Afghanistan suspected to be terrorist training camps under the control of bin Laden.”

They bomb pharmacies, don’t they? | SALON | SEP 23, 1998

On Aug. 20, President Clinton personally ordered the leveling of the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical plant on the outskirts of Khartoum.

Sources in U.S. Intelligence apparently claimed that there was only one “window” through which to strike at bin Laden, and that the only time they could hope to hit his Afghan fastness by this remote means was on the night of Monica Lewinsky’s return to the grand jury.

Look at the Place! Sudan Says, ‘Say Sorry,’ but U.S. Won’t | NEW YORK TIMES | OCT 20, 2005

“Sudan’s government wants the Shifa factory preserved just as it was shortly after 13 Tomahawk cruise missiles took it out in the early evening of August 20. The destroyed factory has become a monument of sorts, a place that Sudanese authorities say symbolizes the mistreatment they have suffered at the hands of the world’s superpower.”

“The government wants it as a showcase,” said Eltayeb Hag Ateya, director of the Peace Studies Institute at the University of Khartoum. “It’s still a thorn in Sudan-American relations. It will always be a point for the Sudanese government to bring up.”

“Well then, what was the hurry? A hurry that was panicky enough for the president and his advisors to pick the wrong objective and then, stained with embarrassment and retraction, to refuse the open inquiry that could have settled the question in the first place? There is really only one possible answer to that question. Clinton needed to look “presidential” for a day.”

The Observer noted:

“The loss of this factory is a tragedy for the rural communities who need these medicines” quoting Tom Carnaffin, technical manager with “intimate knowledge” of the destroyed plant.

A month later, Guardian correspondent Patrick Wintour elaborated that the plant “provided 50 percent of Sudan’s medicines, and its destruction has left the country with no supplies of chloroquine, the standard treatment for malaria”. (Wintour, Patrick, The Observer, 20 December 1998.)

He continued that, despite this, the

British government (who publicly backed the attack) refused requests “to resupply chloroquine in emergency relief until such time as the Sudanese can rebuild their pharmaceutical production”.
The factory was a principal source of Sudan’s anti-malaria and veterinary drugs according to the CBW Conventions Bulletin. | THE CBW CONVENTIONS BULLETIN

Coincidentally Malaria Spirals Out of Control

Malaria Surveillance – United States, 1999 | CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL


The 25.5% increase in malaria cases in 1999, compared with 1998, resulted primarily from increases in cases acquired in Africa and the Americas.

This increase is possibly related to a change in the system by which states report to CDC, but it could also have resulted from local changes in disease transmission, increased travel to these regions, improved reporting to state and local health departments, or a decreased use of effective antimalarial chemoprophylaxis.

In the majority of reported cases, U.S. civilians who acquired infection abroad were not on an appropriate chemoprophylaxis regimen for the country where they acquired malaria.

Public Complain of Malaria Vaccine Shortage | GHANA WEB | NOV 3, 2000

The general public has raised concern and doubt over malaria vaccines, which they said are running short in health centres.

In an interview in health centres, members of the public expressed ‘strong interest’, calling for ‘immediate’ explanation from the health department over what they saw as the acute shortage of chloroquine vaccines at a time when malaria is taking a high toll on the population.

Time to act! What can USAID do for you?

United States Agency for International Development

USAID’s programs are authorized by the Congress in the Foreign Assistance Act, which the Congress supplements through directions in annual funding appropriation acts and other legislation. Although it is technically an independent agency, USAID operates subject to the foreign policy guidance of the President, Secretary of State, and the National Security Council. USAID operates in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe.

Evaluating Malaria Interventions In Africa: A Review and Assessment of Recent Research | USAID | NOV 1999

“According to the most recent data, 40% (2,400 million) of the world population in over 90 countries is affected by malaria. In any given year, nearly 10% of the global population will suffer a case of malaria (Malaria International, 1998).”

“There are 300 – 500 million clinical cases of malaria worldwide each year with the majority occurring in sub-Saharan Africa (WHO, 1998).”

“Malaria has been estimated to cause 9% of all disease in Africa (Nchinda, 1998).”

“According to recent data, there are 1.5 – 2.7 million deaths due to malaria each year, the bulk of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa where an estimated 360 million people live in areas of stable, endemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission (Snow et al., 1999a).”

Rolling Back Malaria | WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION | 1999

Almost 300 million clinical cases of malaria occur worldwide each year and over one million people die.

Almost 90% of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where young children are the most affected.

Malaria is directly responsible for one in five childhood deaths in Africa and indirectly contributes to illness and deaths from respiratory infections, diarrheal disease and malnutrition.

The author then uses factual information in a manner that is very misleading.

“Chloroquine, perhaps the best ever antimalarial drug, and certainly the most widely used, is now failing against falciparum malaria in most areas of the tropical world.”


“In some areas, such as parts of South-East Asia and South America, chloroquine is now completely ineffective against P. falciparum malaria.”

True, but we’re talking about Africa. That’s where the problem is.

“In many parts of India and Africa, its effectiveness is falling rapidly.”

 True, but still misleading. Per the National Center for Biotechnology (NCBI), “despite declining use, CQ remained the first-line therapy for uncomplicated P.f. malaria in the majority of sub-Saharan countries until after 2000.” | US NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE

“For the treatment of falciparum malaria, the usual successor to chloroquine is a combination of pyrimethamine and a long acting sulphonamide (SP), which is also affordable and well tolerated. Five countries in Africa (Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa and Swaziland) have now been forced to switch from chloroquine to SP as the first line antimalarial treatment.”

“Unfortunately, in several of the areas where it has been deployed, notably South-East Asia and South America, P. falciparum has become widely SP-resistant.”

I thought we were talking about sub-Saharan Africa.

The resurgence of malaria (and AIDS) is largely the result of ‘foreign policy’ decisions, made during the Bush & Clinton administrations.

World Health Organization (WHO) backs controversial chemical for malaria control | SCI DEV NET | SEP 18, 2006

The controversial insecticide DDT — which most nations have banned — is back on the menu for malaria control after the World Health Organization reversed a 30-year old policy on Friday (15 September).

The move puts annual indoor spraying of DDT alongside drugs and bednets as one of the three main tools for controlling the disease.

“The scientific and programmatic evidence clearly supports this reassessment,” said Anarfi Asamoa-Baah, assistant director-general for HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria at the World Health Organization (WHO).

“[Indoor spraying] has proven to be just as cost-effective as other malaria prevention methods, and DDT presents no health risk when used properly.”

The chemical kills the mosquitoes that spread malaria. It helped eradicate the disease from southern Europe and North America in the 1960s.

DDT is also toxic to birds, fish and mammals. It accumulates in the food chain and remains in the environment for many years. In the 1970s, growing awareness of these threats led many countries to ban its use in agriculture

Malaria linked to catastrophic spread of AIDS in Africa | SCI DEV NET | DEC 8, 2006

Research in Kenya indicates that the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS across Africa could be linked to malaria.

The work has important implications for public health policies in sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the need to tackle both diseases together.

There is considerable geographical overlap between HIV/AIDS — which infects over 40 million people in Africa — and malaria, which causes 500 million clinical infections each year.

People with both malaria and HIV/AIDS are more likely to transmit the HIV virus, according to the study published in the journal Science today (8 December). This may have promoted the rapid spread of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa.

“We have always known the relationship between [malaria and HIV/AIDS], but we did not know the impact it had on the spread: now we have a reference point,” says Ayub Manya, an epidemiologist with the Kenyan National Malaria Control Programme

World Bank head praises DDT use against malaria | SCI DEV NET | MAR 19, 2007

World Bank president Paul Wolfowitz has praised South Africa’s malaria control programme, saying the country’s use of indoor residual spraying has reduced malaria episodes.

Wolfowitz says he will consider taking South Africa’s approach to other malaria-affected countries. He committed around US$48 million for malaria control in 14 African countries, which could increase, depending on success.

’The Malaria Vaccine Funders Group’

The Malaria Vaccine Funders Group – having a joint vision for a major contribution to a world free from malaria morbidity and mortality through vaccination – has its origins in discussions among representatives from the World Health Organization (WHO), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the European Commission (EC) and the European Vaccine Initiative (EVI)

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF)
The European Commission (EC)
The European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP)
The European Vaccine Initiative (EVI)
The PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI)
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Extramural Malaria Program
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Malaria Vaccine Development Program (MVDP)
The Wellcome Trust
The World Health Organization (WHO) Initiative for Vaccine Research (IVR)

This is not limited to Malaria or Clinton.

The President’s Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR/Emergency Plan) is a United States governmental initiative to address the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and help save the lives of those suffering from the disease, primarily in Africa.

Implementing Agencies

Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator (OGAC)
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Department of Defense (DoD)
Department of Commerce (DoC)
Department of Labor (DoL)
Peace Corps

The program has provided antiretroviral treatment (ART) to over 7.7 million HIV-infected people in resource-limited settings and supported HIV testing and counseling (HTC) for more than 56.7 million people as of 2014.[1] PEPFAR increased the number of Africans receiving ART from 50,000 at the start of the initiative in 2004.[2][3][4] PEPFAR has been called the largest health initiative ever initiated by one country to address a disease. The budget presented for the fiscal year 2016 included a request for $1.11 billion for PEPFAR as well as contributions from global organizations such as UNAIDS and private donors.

Clinton Health Access Initiative Donors
Africa’s clinical trial: Big Pharma deploys R&D in Africa | THIS IS AFRICA | JUN 24, 2013

Aside from the most contentious episodes, there was also a general lack of interest in product development.

Companies showed little inclination to research the so-called ‘neglected’ diseases, as they could not see any way to recoup their investment.

Only 13 new drugs were developed for this disease group between 1975 and 1996 out of more than 1,200 new drugs globally, and all but four were accidental by-products of other research.

By 1995, the 15 biggest pharmaceutical companies had virtually closed down tropical disease research efforts.

The End Of Antibiotics | NEWSWEEK | MAR 27, 1994

Indeed, it looks like medicine declared victory and went home too soon.

Every disease-causing bacterium now has versions that resist at least one of medicine’s 100-plus antibiotics.

The financial toll is steep, too. Because the first antibiotic prescribed often fails, the patient has to try several.

How did we get into this bind? In their eagerness to finish off the old diseases, doctors and patients have, paradoxically, given them new life.

Patients demand antibiotics for viral infections, like colds, that antibiotics cannot touch; every dose of antibiotics makes it that much easier for resistance to spread.

Also, doctors sometimes dispense antibiotics without knowing whether the sore throat, or even the pneumonia, is indeed caused by bacteria

Not the only epidemic caused by malpractice.

America’s Addiction to Opiods: Heroin and Prescription Drug Abuse | DRUGABUSEdotGOV | MAY 14, 2014

The abuse of and addiction to opioids such as heroin, morphine, and prescription pain relievers is a serious global problem that affects the health, social, and economic welfare of all societies.

It is estimated that between 26.4 million and 36 million people abuse opioids worldwide, with an estimated 2.1 million people in the United States suffering from substance use disorders related to prescription opioid pain relievers in 2012 and an estimated 467,000 addicted to heroin.

The consequences of this abuse have been devastating and are on the rise. For example, the number of unintentional overdose deaths from prescription pain relievers has soared in the United States, more than quadrupling since 1999.

There is also growing evidence to suggest a relationship between increased non-medical use of opioid analgesics and heroin abuse in the United States.

“Scientific insight must strike the right balance between providing maximum relief from suffering while minimizing associated risks and adverse effects.”

Small But Growing Number of Doctors Face Criminal Charges Over Prescription Drugs | DRUGFREEdotORG | SEP 15, 2011
Doctors must lead us out of our opioid abuse epidemic | CNN | JUN 2, 2016
We’ve got the best pharmaceutical companies, folks | BAYER | WIKIPEDIA

Hoffmann, working at Bayer pharmaceutical company in Elberfeld, Germany, was instructed by his supervisor Heinrich Dreser to acetylate morphine with the objective of producing codeine, a constituent of the opium poppy, pharmacologically similar to morphine but less potent and less addictive.

Instead, the experiment produced an acetylated form of morphine one and a half to two times more potent than morphine itself.

The head of Bayer’s research department reputedly coined the drug’s new name, “heroin,” based on the German heroisch, which means “heroic, strong” (from the ancient Greek word “heros, ήρως”).

Bayer scientists were not the first to make heroin, but their scientists discovered ways to make it, and Bayer led commercialization of heroin.

Yes, Bayer Promoted Heroin for Children — Here Are The Ads That Prove It | BUSINESS INSIDER | NOV 17, 2011

It’s not news that Bayer, the venerable German drug company, made its first fortunes in the late 1890s when it commercialized both aspirin and heroin as cough, cold and pain remedies.

Many people have seen the sepia images of vintage Bayer’s “Heroin” brand medicine bottles.

But it’s less widely known that Bayer promoted heroin for use in children suffering from coughs, colds and “irritation” as late as 1912, according to an anti-Bayer watchdog group



“Hoffmann, working at Bayer pharmaceutical company in Elberfeld, Germany, was instructed by his supervisor Heinrich Dreser to acetylate morphine with the objective of producing codeine, a constituent of the opium poppy, pharmacologically similar to morphine but less potent and less addictive.”


“Scientific insight must strike the right balance between providing maximum relief from suffering while minimizing associated risks and adverse effects.”

Returning to Malaria.

Unethical Clinical Trials Still Being Conducted in Developing Countries | HUFFINGTON POST | OCT 3, 2014

In 1997, Public Citizen’s Health Research Group brought widespread international attention to unethical clinical trials.

The trials were testing new methods for preventing the spread of HIV infection from pregnant women to their babies before or after giving birth in developing countries in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean.

In each of these trials, most of which were funded by the U.S. government, some women were randomly assigned to receive placebos or other treatments known to be ineffective, rather than a drug proven effective in preventing the spread of HIV infection from mother to baby.

The Changing Global Distribution of Malaria: A Review | WORKING PAPERS – HARVARD | MAR 1999

In 1990, the WHO estimated global malaria incidence at about 120 million clinical cases annually.

In 1994, they estimated 300-500 million cases annually.

The life-cycle of vector-borne diseases like malaria is complex relative to that of many directly-transmitted human diseases (including bacterial or viral diseases like bacterial meningitis or HIV).

Figure 1 shows an overlay of data from World Health Organization maps of malaria risk in 1946, 1966, and 1994, illustrating the extent of this localization to the tropics. Of about 120 countries, islands, or colonies where malaria was endemic in 1945, the disease has disappeared from 15 European countries, about seven islands or archipelagoes, the United States, Israel, and Chile.


As table 1 shows, the current (1999) situation is not uniform.

For example, only 9% of Malaysia’s population lives in regions where malaria is transmitted, and in 1994 59,000 cases of malaria were diagnosed in health clinics serving a total population of 20 million people. In contrast, the whole of Tanzania’s population of 29 million remains at risk of contracting the disease, with more than 8 million diagnosed in health clinics in 1994.

About 40% of the world’s population remains at risk for infection, of whom 19% live in Africa; in addition, about 90% of clinical malaria cases occur in sub-saharan Africa.


Africa is the world region that is most affected by malaria: In 2015, the African continent held 9 out of 10 malaria victims

Conducting clinical trials in emerging markets of sub-Saharan Africa: review of guidelines and resources for foreign sponsors | DOVE PRESS | OPEN ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC & MEDICAL RESEARCH | JAN 7, 2015

Clinical trials provide a foundation for new drug development processes, as well as for product license extensions for existing therapies.

The reduction in the amount of time and cost to conduct a clinical trial becomes important, as competition to bring a new drug to the market is increasing, and so is the search for new markets.

Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia offer a diverse patient population, as well as a comparatively research-friendly and ambitious government to develop these countries as pharmaceutical and health sectors of excellence.

All these countries have their own guidelines to conduct clinical trials that feature some similarities and some subtle differences.

Over the last decade, the guidelines have been evolving to provide a good ground to foreign sponsor, which carry out clinical trials while keeping the interest of patients as a priority.

Oh, really?

Anger at deadly Nigerian drug trials | BBC NEWS | JUN 20, 2007

In 1996, an outbreak of measles, cholera, and bacterial meningitis occurred in Nigeria.

Pfizer representatives traveled to Kano, Nigeria to administer an experimental antibiotic, trovafloxacin, to approximately 200 children.

Local Kano officials report that more than 50 children died in the experiment, while many others developed mental and physical deformities.

Tenofovir trials on HIV transmission | THE LANCET | SOMO pg 4 | 2004–2005

Drugs | lamivudine/zidovudine (Combivir) + tenofovir (Viread) or nevirapine (Viramune) or abacavir (Ziagen) (DART trial)
Treatment | Anti-retroviral therapy (ART)
Sponsors | UK Medical Research Council (MRC) Rockefeller Foundation, DfID (Uganda), GlaxoSmithKline, Gilead, Boehringer-Ingelheim
Period | 2003 – 2006 (DART trial
Location | Uganda, Zimbabwe, Côte d’Ivoire

ART treatment interruption trials (DART TRIALS) | SOMO pg 3 | 2003-2006

Drugs | Tenofovir (Viread)
Treatment | Prevention of HIV transmission
Sponsors | Gilead, US CDC, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Research organization | Family Health International (FHI) in Africa, US NIH in Cambodia
Period | 2004 – 2005
Location | Cameroon, Thailand, Nigeria


Nevirapine PMTCT trials in Uganda | SOMO pg 6

Drug | nevirapine (Viramune)
Treatment | HIV prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT)
Sponsors | Boehringer Ingelheim (BI), US National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Period | 1997 – 2003
Location | Uganda

Ragaglitazar trials in India and other countries | SOMO pg 12

Drugs | ragaglitazar
Treatment | Diabetes treatment
Sponsors | Novo Nordisk
Period | 2002
Location | 32 countries, including India

’Many drugs for U.S. kids tested in poor countries’ | REUTERS | AUG 23, 2010

A law intended to speed up development of new drugs for U.S. kids has ended up financing clinical trials in poor countries, where the medicines might never become available.”The trend that we describe brings up some scientific and ethical problems,” said Dr. Sara K. Pasquali, a pediatrician at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina, whose findings appear in the journal Pediatrics.According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, a trade association, there is no difference in the way trials are conducted in the U.S. and abroad.”Recruiting people is easy, getting informed consent is easy, getting approval is easy, paying the patients and paying the doctors is easy,” Ghayur said. “The physicians and investigators have absolutely no idea about the seriousness of the situation.”


1998 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $120,000
1999 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $140,000
2000 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $160,000
2001 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $20,000
2002 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $160,000
2003 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $330,000
2004 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $360,000
2005 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $360,000
2006 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $360,000

According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, a trade association, there is no difference in the way trials are conducted in the U.S. and abroad.

Well, at least he’s honest.

 Trials on foster care children in New York | SOMO pg 14
Drugs | Various ARV drug combinations and vaccines: didanosine, zidovudine, nevirapine, ritonavir, valacyclovir, Live-Attenuated Varicella Vaccine (Varivax) Seven Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Recombinant Interleukin-2 (rIL-2) Recombinant Envelope Proteins of HIV-1 gp160 and gp120
Treatment | ARV therapy, vaccination against infectious diseases
Sponsors | US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), US National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), Genentech, MicroGeneSystems, Lederle-Praxis Biologicals
Period | 1997 – 2002
Location | New York, US
Guinea Pig Kids | BBC | NOV 29, 2004

HIV positive children – some only a few months old – are enrolled in toxic experiments without the consent of guardians or relatives.The city’s Administration of Children’s Services (ACS) does not even require a court order to place HIV kids with foster parents or in children’s homes, where they can continue to give them experimental drugs.

‘New York’s HIV experiment’ | BBC | NOV 30, 200

Jacklyn Hoerger’s job was to treat children with HIV at a New York children’s home.But nobody had told her that the drugs she was administering were experimental and highly toxic.

SFBC Miami test centre | SOMO pg 7

Drugs | Various
Sponsors | Pfizer, Merck & Co, Johnson & Johnson, Schering-Plough, Theravance, Purdue Pharma, AstraZeneca, and others
Research organization | SFBC
Period | 2000 – 2005
Location | Miami, USA

Side Effects May Include Lawsuits | NEW YORK TIMES | OCT 2, 2010

Every major company selling the antipsychotics — Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Pfizer, AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson — has either settled recent government cases, under the False Claims Act, for hundreds of millions of dollars or is currently under investigation for possible health care fraud.


2012 | Bristol-Myers Squibb | $100,000

1999 | Eli Lilly & Co | $80,000
2000 | Eli Lilly & Co | $80,000
2004 | Pfizer Inc | $100,000
2005 | Pfizer Inc | $180,000
2006 | Pfizer Inc | $240,000
2007 | Pfizer Inc | $40,000
2011 | Johnson & Johnson | $100,000
2012 | Johnson & Johnson | $160,000
2013 | Johnson & Johnson | $200,000
2014 | Johnson & Johnson | $50,000


Johnson & Johnson | $100,001 – $250,000
AstraZeneca | PLC $100,001 – $250,000
AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP | $50,001 – $100,000

Malaria drug causes brain damage that mimics PTSD: case study | MILITARY TIMES | AUG 11, 2016

The case of a service member diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder but found instead to have brain damage caused by a malaria drug raises questions about the origin of similar symptoms in other post-9/11 veterans.

According to the case study published online in Drug Safety Case Reports in June, a U.S. military member sought treatment at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, for uncontrolled anger, insomnia, nightmares and memory loss.

The fix is in

Leaked Podesta email discussing price fixing AIDS drugs for their benefit. | WIKILEAKS | DEC 12, 2011

“We were taken by surprise by President Clinton’s comments on world AIDS day and wish that someone had consulted with us before he made these comments.” …

…” We have always told the drug companies that we would not pressure them and create a slippery slope where prices they negotiate with us for poor countries would inevitably lead to similar prices in rich countries.” …

… “We would have to initiate discussions with multiple state health officials as well as HHS in addition to talking with the drug companies.” …

… “Whatever we decide, we need to make a decision quickly and President Clinton and CHAI need to be in synch. I do not think it is a good idea for President Clinton to be taking one position and CHAI another.” …

Is the Clinton Foundation Responsible for the High Price of AIDS Drugs in the US? | HUFFINGTON POST | DEC 30, 2016

“If you really had to think long and hard about it, the ultimate result of years of negotiations by the Clinton Foundation was that the price of AIDS drugs ended up being high in the US.”

“Furthermore, African governments were paranoid that drug companies were a part of a massive conspiracy suppressing their countries.

Clinton Foundation AIDS Program Distributed ‘Watered-Down’ Drugs to Third World Countries | DAILY CALLER | SEP 19, 2016

Former President Bill Clinton and his Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) distributed “watered-down” HIV/AIDs drugs to patients in sub-Saharan Africa, and “likely increased” the risks of morbidity and mortality.

The CHAI program to help AIDS victims is considered one of the Clinton Foundation’s most important contributions and is probably its best known initiative.

Ranbaxy ultimately pleaded guilty in 2013 to seven criminal counts with intent to defraud and the introduction of adulterated drugs into interstate commerce.

The Department of Justice further levied a $500 million fine and forfeiture on the company.

Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc. donated $100,001 – $250,000 to the Clinton Foundation.

Clinton Foundation Advised World Bank on Contracts That Netted Donors Millions | FREE BEACON | AUG 16, 2016

Two of every three dollars spent acquiring anti-tuberculosis drugs through the program, which is administered by the World Bank, have gone to two companies—Swiss health care giant Novartis and Indian drug company Lupin Ltd.—that together have donated up to $130,000 to the Clinton Foundation.The project, dubbed the Second National Tuberculosis Control Project (SNTCP), is financed by the World Bank’s International Development Association, which receives the bulk of its funding from the United States, Britain, Japan, and Germany.Clinton has pointed to her foundation’s work in promoting access to pharmaceuticals in the developing world as an example of its laudatory humanitarian mission.However, critics have noted how beneficiaries of other foundation-backed pharmaceutical access programs have made large financial contributions to the group. Companies that received funds from the foundation to provide low-cost HIV drugs, for instance, were donors to the foundation.


The Clinton Foundation Likely Facilitated The Distribution of Watered Down HIV/AIDS Medications In sub-Saharan Africa Through Its Health Access Initiative.The Distribution of Watered Down HIV/AIDS Medications In sub-Saharan Africa May Have Increased Patient Mortality Rates.Watered Down HIV/AIDS ARVs Were Purchased With Taxpayer Money Through PEPFAR As A Result of Price Agreements, Some of Which Were Likely Negotiated By The Clinton Foundation.President Clinton Was Personally Enriched With Million Dollar Consulting Contracts By A Friend of Convicted Felon, and Ranbaxy advocate, Rajat Gupta From 2002-2008.

Lobbyists for Clinton’s ‘Enemies’ Are Bankrolling Her Campaign | FREE BEACON | OCT 14, 2015

Asked to name the enemies that she is most proud of during Tuesday’s Democratic presidential debate, Hillary Clinton cited industries represented by lobbyists who are among her top campaign fundraisers.In addition to Iran and the Republican Party, Clinton said she was proud to count “the health insurance companies” and “the drug companies” as her enemies.Those industries’ lobbyists do not appear to share that enmity. By mid-July, seven of them had raised hundreds of thousands of dollars for her presidential campaign, according to campaign finance records.They include Heather and Tony Podesta, the recently divorced Democratic power brokers. Heather Podesta represents health insurer Cigna, while Tony lobbies on behalf of pharmaceutical firms Amgen and EMD Serono, a division of drug giant Merck.The Podestas have also given as much as $150,000 to the Clinton Foundation, according to that group’s list of donors.Insurers Humana and Blue Cross Blue Shield of North Carolina and drug company Pfizer have donated between $1 million and $5 million. Merck has given $250,000 to $500,000; AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson have donated $100,000 to $250,000.One of the speakers at this year’s annual Clinton Global Initiative summit was Merck chairman and chief executive Kenneth Frazier, a PhRMA board member. Last year, CGI hosted the president of health care consulting firm Rabin Martin, which represents a number of drug companies. The year before, it announced financial commitments from Pfizer, one of multiple such charitable commitments that drug company has made through the Clinton Foundation.

Clinton Foundation Briefing: Africa 2012 | WIKILEAKS (pg. 9 of attachment)

“CLINTON HEALTH ACCESS INITIATIVE (CHAI) first began working in South Africa in 2003, when the government asked for assistance to develop a plan to significantly scale up HIV services and access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). In 2009, CHAI was invited back to partner with the South African Government to help improve the response to HIV and TB, which laid the foundation for the most aggressive expansion of HIV testing and treatment ever attempted in the world. In addition to the CHAI HIV/AIDS work, CHAI also supports the National Department of Health (NDOH) with efforts to eliminate malaria.”“CHAI worked with the government to develop implementation plans for testing and treatment and to select facilities for ART scale-up. From April 2010 to March 2012, the number of facilities providing ART increased from 495 to over 3000, and in the last year close to 430,000 people started treatment. Since April 2010, nearly 20 million HIV tests were conducted in South Africa.”

Microsoft Joins Child Safety Advocates, Law Enforcement for Fourth Global Law Enforcement Training in Paarl, South Africa | INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR MISSING & EXPLOITED CHILDREN | SEP 6, 2004

PAARL, SOUTH AFRICA/PRNewswire-FirstCall/ – To address the growing problem of children’s safety on the Internet around the world, the International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children, Interpol and Microsoft Corp. (Nasdaq: MSFT) continue their series of international training programs for law enforcement personnel who investigate computer-facilitated crimes against children this week in Paarl, Western Cape, South Africa.The training conference, which begins Sept. 6 and runs through Sept. 9, brings together 73 worldwide law enforcement representatives from 12 countries for four days of extensive training on investigating online child predators, collecting evidence and computer forensic information, and seeking private industry assistance in child exploitation investigations. Representatives from Botswana, France, Ghana, Italy, Lesotho, Qatar, South Africa, Spain, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe are meeting in Paarl this week

CHAI UPDATE – February 2013 | WIKILEAKS (attachment)

International Centre Training Initiative Breaks Ground In The Middle East | INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR MISSING & EXPLOITED CHILDREN | JUN 6, 2005

AMMAN, JORDAN – As the World Wide Web drapes itself across the globe, sexual predators are finding new ways to weave themselves into our homes and our children’s lives. The growing problem of online child sexual exploitation, and the demand for a law-enforcement response, has led the International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children (International Centre), in partnership with Microsoft and Interpol, to host a series of international training programs for law-enforcement personnel who investigate these crimes. The series continues this month in Amman, Jordan. There are 98 participating law-enforcement officers from six different countries, including Jordan, China, Italy, Denmark, Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia.

Qatar Investment Authority

The Qatar Investment Authority (Arabic: جهاز قطر للإستثمار) (QIA) is Qatar‘s state-owned holding company that can be characterized as a National Wealth Fund. It specializes in domestic and foreign investment. The QIA was founded by the State of Qatar in 2005 to strengthen the country’s economy by diversifying into new asset classes.


Qatar Investment Authority owns (100%) Qatar Holding LLC, and is associated with Qatar National Bank (50%).QIA is affiliated with Qatar Islamic Bank (16.67%) and with Ubac Curaçao NV (1.35%).


In January 2013, one writer pegged the QIA investment in Britain at 30 billion euros, France 10 billion euros and Germany 5 billion euros,[5] while another reported that the total assets under management in June 2013 was on the order of $100 billion.[12] Qatar Holding’s stake in Barclays rose to 12.7% following Barclays’ capital raising in October 2008.[13] Qatar Investment Authority holds a small stake in Fisker Automotive. It also holds about 17% stake in the Volkswagen Group, Porsche, Hochtief,[14] as well as investments in Sainsbury’s.[15] The French government has made of Qatar a strategic partner, and the list of partnerships between the two states includes Lagardère (12%) Total (4%), EADS (6%), Technip, Air Liquide, Vinci SA (5%), GDF Suez, Veolia (5%), Vivendi, Royal Monceau, France Telecom and Areva.[5][14][16] In February 2009, France accorded special beyond-OECD investment privileges to Qatar and its State-Owned Enterprises; one example is capital gains exemptions in France.[16] The QIA is also reported to hold part of Xstrata (GLENCOR).Industry sponsored clinical drug trials in Egypt | SOMO | JUNE 21, 2016

The past 20 years have seen a considerable shift in the location of clinical drug trials sponsored by transnational pharmaceutical companies (TNCs), with a significant ex-pansion of such tests being conducted in low- and middle-income settings. This increased offshoring may result in serious ethical violations as highlighted by several recent field investigations and media reports.An attractive research infrastructure, a fast-growing and largely treatment-naïve population, and lower costs make Egypt among the most popular places in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) region for offshoring medicine testing. Egypt is second only to South Africa on the African continent in terms of the number of TNC-sponsored clinical trials it hosts.Of the 57 international drug trials that were active in Egypt in February 2016, over half were cancer trials. The two Swiss giants Novartis and Roche are responsible for almost 50 per cent of the international drug trials taking place in the country. The Arab spring events of early 2011 and the subsequent political unrest had no chilling effect on the number of active international drug trials – on the contrary.Egypt has the highest prevalence of viral hepatitis C in the world, and was the frst low- or middle-income country in 2014 to negotiate preferential pricing for the new direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment sofosbuvir (Sovaldi®) with manufacturer Gilead.Raymond Schinazi fled Nasser’s Egypt to become pioneer in antivirals | FINANCIAL TIMES | JULY 27, 2014

He personally had a hand in discovering and developing several key treatments for HIV and Hepatitis C. These include Gilead’s Sovaldi, which has had the best-selling debut in pharmaceutical history: sales hit $5.8bn in the first half of 2014.The Drug That is Bankrupting America | HUFFINGTON POST | FEBRUARI 2, 2015

Former VA Scientist Responds to Lawmaker’s Suspicions over Drug Sale | MILITARYdotCOM

The drug shown to cure hepatitis C is sold by Gilead Sciences of California under the brand name Sovaldi, but it was developed at Pharmasset, a private lab owned by Dr. Raymond Schinazi while he worked for the VA Medical Center in Atlanta and Emory University.Today, skeptical lawmakers question whether Schinazi got rich using VA resources and funding. He sold Pharmasset, and with it the drug, to Gilead in 2011 for $11 billion.Hepatitis C Drug Maker is Price Gouging, republican lawmaker says | MILITARY TIMES | JANUARI 27, 2016

The chairman of the House Veterans’ Affairs Committee has accused the makers of hepatitis C drug sofosbuvir of opportunism and price-gouging for charging the U.S. government up to $68,000 for a treatment regimen that costs about $1,400 to manufacture.Dr Raymond F Schinazi

International Center for Missing & Exploited Children | Board of Advisors
Emory University School of Medicine | Professor of Pediatrics
RFS Pharma LLC | Founder (Sold to Gilead Sciences in 2003)
Idenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc. | Founder
Triangle Pharmaceuticals, Inc. | Founder
Pharmasset (VRUS) | Founder (Sold to Gilead Sciences for $11B IN 2012)
Foundation for AIDS Reserach | Governing Trustee

The pharmaceutical lobbying industry is worth over double the oil and gas sector | OPEN SECRETS

In the last 20 years, there has been a dramatic shift in clinical trial practices with companies now primarily outsourcing pipeline testing to third world countries. | SOMO

During this time, the Clinton Foundation and its partners began constructing a vast network of infrastructure throughout the Third World. Clinton’s trip to Africa in 1998 was the longest trip in history by a US President | WIKILEAKS PODESTA 47421 | ATTACHMENT

They’ve been constructing infrastructure like mad- transportation infrastructure including roads, bridges, seaports, airports, power generation, food production, information (news), telecommunications, intelligence (and intelligence sharing) et cetera | UNOHRLLS

Haitian Farmers Reject Monsanto Donation | FOOD SAFETY NEWS | JUNE 7, 2010

Why Seven African Nations Joined Anti Monsanto Protests Last Weekend | THINKPROGRESS | OCTOBER 17, 2013

Lobbyists for Monsanto, ExxonMobil Raise Money for Hillary Clinton | BLOOMBERG | JULY 17, 2015

Twelve Reasons for Africa to reject GM Crops | GRAINdotORG | JULY 25, 2004


(1) (U) This is an action request. See paragraph 12. SUMMARY

(2) (SBU) Spain’s MON810 corn crop is under threat from an emerging well-coordinated campaign to ban cultivation of genetically engineered seed varieties in Europe, according to industry sources. The campaign has gained strength and speed in recent months with the April 14 German ban on MON810 cultivation – which followed an EU vote supporting maintenance of a ban in Austria and Hungary. Legislation which threatens MON810 cultivation has also been introduced recently in both the Basque and Catalonian Regional Parliaments.

(3) (SBU) In response to invocation of a safeguard and emergency measure to suspend MON810 cultivation in France, the European Food Safety Authority’s (EFSA) Scientific Opinion of October 29, 2008 found no new scientific evidence of risk related to MON810 plantings. The EFSA report, however, is being questioned. Monsanto maintains that anti-MON810 momentum was gained by a de facto agreement between the Government of France and Greenpeace/Friends of the Earth whereby the GOF would support the anti-GMO movement and environmental activists would turn a blind eye to Sarkozy’s nuclear energy initiatives. A senior Spanish agriculture official has expressed concern that Spain is under increasing pressure within the EU. Post requests renewed USG support of Spain’s science-based agricultural biotechnology position, as well as support for a non-USG science fellow to interact with Spanish interlocutors. End Summary.

(4) (SBU) Spain was the first EU country to grow genetically modified (GM) corn and now cultivates nearly 75 percent of the EU’s MON810 corn crop – nearly 200,000 acres. During a May 13 meeting with Monsanto’s Director for Biotechnology for Spain and Portugal, Embassy officials were told that Spain is increasingly becoming a target of anti-biotechnology forces within Europe and that Spain’s cultivation of MON810 corn was under serious threat. The sentiment echoed by supporters of agricultural biotechnology regarding a ban on MON810 cultivation in Spain is that “If Spain falls, the rest of Europe will follow.”

(12) (SBU) ACTION REQUESTED: In response to recent urgent requests by MARM State Secretary Josep Puxeu and Monsanto, post requests renewed USG support of Spain’s science-based agricultural biotechnology position through high-level USG intervention in support of the EFSA findings. Post also requests USG support for a non-USG science fellow to meet with influential Spanish interlocutors on this issue and assistance with developing an agricultural biotechnology action plan for Spain. Post would also welcome any comments from other posts concerning the anti-GMO campaign. DUNCAN

Xeno Transplantation

Animal-to-human organ transplants, known as xenotransplantation, might sound like extraordinary stuff, but Rothblatt has the track record for innovation, the intellectual curiosity, and the deep pockets needed to do pioneering research in this area.

Enter Martine Rothblatt. When she was a he, she wrote her thesis about the intersection of ethics, economics, and- xenotransplantation.

She is the Founder, CEO & Chairman of United Therapeutics | SYNTHETIC GENOMICS

Polymath Martine Rothblatt turns to transplants | FORTUNE

United Therapeutics has teamed up with Craig Venter’s Synthetic Genomics, a biotech company based in La Jolla, Calif., to develop pigs with genetically modified organs — for transplantation into humans.

Modified pigs to grow Humanized Lungs | SAN DIEGO TRIBUNE

In a move filled with the promise of scientific innovation but also the prospect of controversy, a La Jolla company is set to announce Tuesday that it will join forces with a biotech firm to create pigs with lungs and other organs that are compatible for transplantation into humans.

The local company is Synthetic Genomics, led by J. Craig Venter, whose world-famous feats include sequencing the human genome. Its partner in the new venture will be Lung Biotechnology — a subsidiary of United Therapeutics, which has a market value of $5.1 billion.

Synthetic Genomics will get a $50 million investment under the research and development agreement, along with milestone payments and royalties from any sales, according to the companies.

Synthetic Genomics plans to use its genomic modification tools to produce pig cells compatible with human immune systems, said Venter, its chairman and CEO.

United Therapeutics – of Silver Spring, Md. – intends to use those cells to make embryos that would be grown into pigs with transplantable organs.


2008 | Synthetic Genomics | $200,000
2009 | Synthetic Genomics | $320,000
2010 | Synthetic Genomics | $320,000
2011 | Synthetic Genomics | $320,000
2012 | Synthetic Genomics | $170,000
2013 | Synthetic Genomics | $100,000
2014 | Synthetic Genomics | $120,000
2015 | Synthetic Genomics | $120,000
2016 | Synthetic Genomics | $90,000

Sounds like a great industry for human testing, which really would be nothing new | WIKIPEDIA PAGE

Getting Back to the Clintons

Clinton Health Access Initiative opened for business in South Africa in 2003. | WIKILEAKS

They brokered the distribution of vital pharmaceutical resources and established “public-private” partnerships in the healthcare industry to formulate public policy, implement planning and monitor the implementation of the programs. The main focuses were HIV/AIDS & Malaria.

South Africa has a public health care system and a private system. The public system, as expected, is terrible. The only people with access to the private sector are- you guessed it, the wealthy.

South Africa is being exploited by the international drug companies to boost patient numbers and that the trials provide no long-term benefit for either the patients or local research staff | The Clinical Trials Industry in South Africa: Ethics, Rules and


Given the current state of South Africa’s struggling public health sector, it is clear that in many cases, people are not in a position to access or afford the medicines or specialist treatment they may need. Therefore the opportunity to participate in clinical trials and receive treatment for free is a tempting proposition for many | Clinical Trials in SA

International Center for Missing & Exploited Children | Director
Good Governance Group (G3) | Founder
C5 Capital (partnered with Amazon Web Services) | Founder
Kroll Inc | Manager, Africa & Natural Resources Division
BAE Systems | Contractor for BAE through C5 Capital
United States Institute of Peace | International Advisory Council

Andre is a private investor. He serves as the Executive Chairman of C5 Partners, a specialist technology investment company. He also serves as the Deputy Chairman of the Advisory Council of Cranemere Inc, a permanent capital industrial investment company.

He founded and served as the Group CEO of the Good Governance Group (G3) (2004-2014), a consulting firm that advises global companies and international law firms on foreign direct investment, compliance and cybersecurity.

He serves as a trustee of the David Shepherd Wildlife Foundation, a charity focused on wildlife conservation. Andre is also a Council Member of the African Union Foundation, a charitable organisation emerging from the African Union which works to mobilise domestic resources for Africa’s development. Andre is Founder and Chairman of the Leadership Technology Centre, a charitable organisation which aims to facilitate the provision of technologies and services to community and charity leaders.

Andre is an Advocate of the Supreme Court of South Africa.

Kenya Joins Nations Pursuing Funds Stolen by Ex Leaders | NEW YORK TIMES | DECEMBER 21, 2003

Inside the corporate intelligence company which bankrolled Liam Fox | THE TELEGRAPH

A South African Intelligence expert made payments of as much as £ 60,000 through his security company for an unregistered charity linked to Dr Liam Fox.

‘Bad to the bone: A medical horror story’ | FORTUNE | SEPTEMBER 18, 2012

When medical device company Synthes decided to illegally test a bone cement on people, the results were disastrous. A disturbing tale of corporate crime and punishment.

Synthes not only disregarded multiple warnings that it was flouting the rules, but also brushed off scientists’ cautions that the cement could cause fatal blood clots.

Liberal groups refuse to talk about links to funder with tainted history of illegal human experiments | WASHINGTON EXAMINER | JULY 29, 2014

Swiss billionaire Hansjorg Wyss, whose former company conducted illegal human experiments where three elderly patients died.

The Examiner reported July 23 that John Podesta received $ 87,000 as a paid consultant to a Wyss-controlled foundation before joining President Obama’s inner circle of White House advisers.

Podesta has also benefited from the more than $ 4 million Wyss has given to the Center for American Progress since 2008.

Podesta was the founding president of CAP and remains as chairman of its board of directors, which also includes Wyss, former Secretary of State Madeline Albright; former Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle, D-S.D; and former Obama White House energy czar Carol Browner.

The loyalty appears to be reciprocated, as liberal groups continue to remain silent about their acceptance of millions of dollars in donations from the reclusive Swiss billionaire even as CEO Wyss conducted abhorrent human experiments.

Wyss, who was Synthes CEO and majority stockholder at the time of the indictment, sold Synthes to Johnson & Johnson in 2012 for $ 21.3 billion.

The Wyss Foundation donated $1,000,001 – $5,000,000 to the Clinton Foundation

Stryker Corporation | CORRECT THE RECORD

Since early 2007, the company has received three Warning Letters from the Food & Drug Administration citing issues in compliancy.

The first of these, a seven-page correspondence, named various issues at an Irish manufacturing facility, such as untimely fix of failures and procedural noncompliance in the testing of failed or otherwise problem-prone devices.

The second, sent November 2007, cites issues at the firm’s Mahwah, New Jersey, facility, including poor fixation of hip implant components, in some instances requiring mitigation by revision surgeries; exceeded microbial level violations in the cleaning and final packaging areas of the sterile implants; and failure to institute measures in prevention of recurrence of these and other problems.

The final warning letter, sent April 2008, cites issues at the firm’s Hopkinton, MA biotechnology facility. Again, issues relate to quality and noncompliance including falsification of documents relevant to the selling of products to hospitals which are to be sold under a limited, government-mandated basis. Stryker maintains that employees involved in the falsification of documents have since been terminated.





One-party rule ended in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar’s semi-autonomous status and popular opposition led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers’ claims of voting irregularities.

The formation of a government of national unity between Zanzibar’s two leading parties succeeded in minimizing electoral tension in 2010.


Kilimanjaro is the highest point in Africa and one of only two mountains on the continent that has glaciers (the other is Mount Kenya).

Bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world’s second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world’s second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) in the southwest.

 Trafficking in Persons

Tanzania is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking.

The exploitation of young girls in domestic servitude continues to be Tanzania’s largest human trafficking problem.

Tanzanian boys are subject to forced labor mainly on farms but also in mines and quarries, in the informal commercial sector, in factories, in the sex trade, and possibly on small fishing boats.

Tanzanian children and adults are subjected to domestic servitude, other forms of forced labor, and sex trafficking in other African countries, the Middle East, Europe, and the US.

Internal trafficking is more prevalent than transnational trafficking and is usually facilitated by friends, family members, or intermediaries with false offers of education or legitimate jobs.

Trafficking victims from Burundi, Kenya, South Asia, and Yemen are forced to work in Tanzania’s agricultural, mining, and domestic service sectors or may be sex trafficked.

Tier 2 Watch List – Tanzania does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking.

Granted exemption from downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; the government adopted a three-year national action plan and implementing regulations for the 2008 anti-trafficking law;

Authorities somewhat increased their number of trafficking investigations and prosecutions and convicted one offender, but the penalty was a fine in lieu of prison, which was inadequate given the severity of the crime; the government did not operate any shelters for victims and relied on NGOs to provide protective services (2015)


Lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected


For Tanzania, most migration is internal, rural to urban movement, while some temporary labor migration from towns to plantations takes place seasonally for harvests.

Tanzania was Africa’s largest refugee-hosting country for decades, hosting hundreds of thousands of refugees from the Great Lakes region, primarily Burundi, over the last fifty years.

However, the assisted repatriation and naturalization of tens of thousands of Burundian refugees between 2002 and 2014 dramatically reduced the refugee population.

Tanzania is increasingly a transit country for illegal migrants from the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes region who are heading to southern Africa for security reasons and/or economic opportunities.


Tanzania is one of the world’s poorest economies in terms of per capita income, but has achieved high growth rates based on its vast natural resource wealth and tourism.

Dar es Salaam used fiscal stimulus measures and easier monetary policies to lessen the impact of the global recession.

Tanzania has largely completed its transition to a “market economy”, though the government retains a presence in sectors such as:





The economy depends on agriculture, which accounts for more than one-quarter of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs about 80% of the work force.

Agriculture accounts for 7% of government expenditures.

All land in Tanzania is owned by the government, which can lease land for up to 99 years. Proposed reforms to allow for land ownership, particularly foreign land ownership, remain unpopular.

The financial sector in Tanzania has expanded in recent years and foreign-owned banks account for about 48% of the banking industry’s total assets.

The World Bank, the IMF, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania’s aging infrastructure, including rail and port, that provide important trade links for inland countries.

In 2013, Tanzania completed the world’s largest Millennium Challenge Compact grant, worth $698 million, and, in December 2014, the Millennium Challenge Corporation selected Tanzania for a second Compact.

In late 2014, a highly publicized scandal in the energy sector involving senior Tanzanian officials resulted in international donors freezing nearly $500 million in direct budget support to the government.

German Government Funding – WIKILEAKS PODESTA 53308 | MAR 3, 2012

“As you may know, the German Minister for Economic Cooperation and Development, Dr. Dirk Niebel, sent a letter to WJC on Feb 17, suggesting a meeting to discuss partnership. [This is the arm of the German government that funds development projects overseas.]”

“Their priorities are education, entrepreneurship, and clean energy, and their priority regions are Africa and Asia. We honed in on three areas of overlapping interest: (1) CDI, (2) CCI in cities, and (3) islands’ adaptation to climate change.”

“Besides funding for CDI, we also discussed them sharing with us the lessons they have learned on value-add agri-businesses elsewhere in Africa.”

Howard Buffet  – WIKILEAKS PODESTA 52883 | MAR 16, 2012
To:,,,, CC:,,, Date: 2012-03-16 13:34 Subject: Howard Buffett

Had a good call today with Howard Buffett. Like WJC, he talked about strengthening agriculture (sustainably) in developing countries in Africa, Latin/Central America, and beyond; and also in reconfiguring US food aid to enable more local purchasing of food aid rather than shipping US farm produce overseas. [Besides running his farm, he runs farms in South Africa and Central America and is currently a UN WFP Ambassador and advocate for their Purchase for Progress initiative.] He was surprised to learn there are so many shared interests. We discussed a few areas of possible future collaboration, all of which effectively are either “talking” or “doing,” on which I’d welcome your feedback:


COUNTRY VISIT. We discussed WJC’s agriculture work in Rwanda/Malawi/Peru/Colombia and he is intrigued. He said he’s visiting South Africa (where he runs a 9,000 acre farm) in August and would like to visit Malawi/Rwanda to see CF projects. We can help facilitate his visit. I didn’t mention WJC’s Africa trip but should we consider a joint-visit whenever WJC goes? [He liked the Neno wheat example of working ourselves out of a job.]

– CDI. Funding for scaling-up commercial farms in Malawi/Tanzania. I explained our interest in growing the program, he said he’d like to work together given a lot of shared interests, and that he’ll be able to make a decision after seeing our work first-hand. Whenever he visits Malawi, we should be prepared with a specific ask.

CARLOS SLIM. He said he has been in discussions with Marco about doing joint agriculture work in Mexico and he asked if we’d be open to discussing it and to WJC being involved as the convener. I said we work with Slim as well and that we’d be happy to discuss it together.


He is writing a book and would like to profile WJC’s agriculture work (we discussed Malawi). I said we’d be happy to discuss it further and provide him with more information about the projects. – CGI. He’s going to try to come to CGI in September. He said it’s right around corn harvest so he doesn’t like being away from his farm but he will try to come for one day.

He asked if there any appetite to do joint advocacy on agriculture issues – most notably US food aid. I tried to bring it back to CGI as an opportunity for him to share his message there under the umbrella of CGI. It would be good to give him information on any agriculture-related programming or action networks being contemplated for September, for him to weigh-in on.

Hope this helps, and I’d welcome your feedback. Thanks, Ami

New Generation of African Leaders

The term “new generation” or “new breed” of African leaders was a buzzword widely used in the mid-late 1990s to express optimism in a new generation of African leadership. It has since fallen out of favor, along with several of the leaders the term was used for.

When US president Bill Clinton made his African journey in March 1998, he helped popularize this notion when he said he placed hope in a new generation of African leaders devoted to democracy and economic reforms. Although Clinton did not identify the African leaders by name, it is generally assumed that he was referring to, among others, Yoweri Museveni of Uganda, Paul Kagame of Rwanda, Meles Zenawi of Ethiopia and Isaias Afewerki of Eritrea.

Dafydd Jones


Tatler At the Dorchester gathered London’s glossiest women, including Tanya Bryer, Amanda Gutkin and Fizzy Barclay, to raise over £ 100,000 for Cancer Research UK

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation $25,000,001 – No maximum
Clinton Giustra Enterprise Partnership (Canada) $25,000,001 – No maximum
Frank Giustra, The Radcliffe Foundation $25,000,001 – No maximum
Fred Eychaner $25,000,001 – No maximum
Nationale Postcode Loterij $25,000,001 – No maximum
The Children’s Investment Fund Foundation $25,000,001 – No maximum
UNITAID $25,000,001 – No maximum
AUSAID $10,000,001 – $25,000,000
Cheryl and Haim Saban & The Saban Family Foundation $10,000,001 – $25,000,000
COPRESIDA $10,000,001 – $25,000,000
Government of Norway $10,000,001 – $25,000,000
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia $10,000,001 – $25,000,000
Stephen L. Bing $10,000,001 – $25,000,000
The ELMA Foundation $10,000,001 – $25,000,000
The Hunter Foundation $10,000,001 – $25,000,000
The Victor Pinchuk Foundation $10,000,001 – $25,000,000
Theodore W. Waitt $10,000,001 – $25,000,000
Tom Golisano $10,000,001 – $25,000,000
C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group, Inc. $5,000,001 – $10,000,000
Commonwealth of Australia, DIICC $5,000,001 – $10,000,000
Denis J. O’Brien $5,000,001 – $10,000,000
Elton John AIDS Foundation $5,000,001 – $10,000,000
Government of the Netherlands $5,000,001 – $10,000,000
Irish Aid $5,000,001 – $10,000,000
J.B. and M.K. Pritzker Family Foundation $5,000,001 – $10,000,000
John D. Mackay $5,000,001 – $10,000,000
Michael Schumacher $5,000,001 – $10,000,000
S. Daniel Abraham $5,000,001 – $10,000,000
Sheikh Mohammed H. Al-Amoudi $5,000,001 – $10,000,000
State of Kuwait $5,000,001 – $10,000,000
Susie Tompkins Buell Fund of the Marin Community Foundation $5,000,001 – $10,000,000
The Coca-Cola Company $5,000,001 – $10,000,000
The Rockefeller Foundation $5,000,001 – $10,000,000
The Swedish Postcode Lottery $5,000,001 – $10,000,000
The Wasserman Foundation $5,000,001 – $10,000,000
100 Women in Hedgefunds $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Absolute Return for Kids (ARK) $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Amar Singh $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
American Federation of Teachers $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Angelopoulos Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Anheuser-Busch Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Ariadne Getty $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Arnold H. Simon $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Barclays Capital $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Bernard L. Schwartz $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Booz Allen Hamilton $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Bren Simon $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Carlos Slim Helú & Fundación Carlos Slim $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Christy and John Mack Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Cisco $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Citi Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Clinton-Bush Haiti Fund $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Dave Katragadda $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Donald L. Saunders $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Dubai Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Duke Energy Corporation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Entergy $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
ExxonMobil $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Fidelity Charitable Gift Fund $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Frank White $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Friends of Saudi Arabia $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Fundacion Telmex $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
GEMS Education $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Gerardo Werthein $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Gianna Angelopoulos $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Gilbert R. Chagoury $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
GIZ – Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Harold Snyder $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Hewlett-Packard Company $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Hult International Business School $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Humana Inc. $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
ICAP Services North America $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Inter-American Development Bank $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Issam M. Fares & The Wedge Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
James R. Murdoch $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Jay Alix $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Joachim Schoss $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Jonathan M. Orszag $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Joseph T. Ford $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Kessler Family Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Lakshmi N. Mittal $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Laureate International Universities $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Lukas Lundin $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
MAC AIDS Fund $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Mala Gaonkar Haarman $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Mary Bing and Doug Ellis $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Michael and Jena King $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Michael Smurfit $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Microsoft $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Nasser Al-Rashid $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Newsmax Media Inc. $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Nima Taghavi $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Norad (Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation) $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
NRG Energy, Inc. $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
OAS S.A. $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
OCP Corporation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Open Society Institute $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Paul D. Reynolds $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Peter G. Peterson Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Pfizer Inc $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
PGA Tour, Inc. $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Presidential Inaugural Committee $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Princess Diana Memorial Fund $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Procter & Gamble $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Richard and Jackie Caring $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Richard Blum and Blum Family Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Rilin Enterprises $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Robert Disbrow $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Robert L. Johnson $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Robertson Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Roy E. Cockrum $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Salida Capital Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Sanela D. Jenkins $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Smith and Elizabeth Bagley $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Sol Goldman Charitable Trust $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Standard Chartered Bank $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Starkey Hearing Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Starkey Hearing Technologies, Inc. $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
State of Qatar $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Stephen J. Cloobeck $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Sterling Stamos Capital Management, LP $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Steven Spielberg $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Stewart Rahr $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Suzlon Energy Ltd. $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Swedish Postcode Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Swiss Reinsurance Company $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
T.G. Holdings $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Tenet Healthcare Corporation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The Annenberg Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The Boeing Company $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The Clinton Family Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The Dow Chemical Company $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The ELMA Philanthropies Services (U.S.) Inc. $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The ERANDA Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The Ford Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The Government of Brunei Darussalam $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The Howard Gilman Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The James R. Greenbaum, Jr. Family Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The Marc Haas Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The New York Community Trust $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The Roy and Christine Sturgis Charitable & Educational Trust $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The Sherwood Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The Sidney E. Frank Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The Streisand Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The Sultanate of Oman $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The Walmart Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The Walton Family Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The Wyss Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
The Zayed Family $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Thomson Reuters $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Torres-Picón Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Toyota Motor North America, Inc. $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Tracfone Wireless, Inc. $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
UK Department for International Development (DFID) $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
United Arab Emirates $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Verein Aids Life $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Victor P. Dahdaleh & The Victor Phillip Dahdaleh Charitable Foundation $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Vin Gupta $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Walid Juffali $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Wallace W. Fowler $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Walter H. Shorenstein $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Worldwide Support for Development $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
YPY Holding Limited $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Abraaj Holdings $500,001 – $1,000,000
Acxiom Corporation $500,001 – $1,000,000
Aileen Getty and the Aileen Getty Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
Alibaba Group $500,001 – $1,000,000
Alonzo Cantu $500,001 – $1,000,000
amfAR: The Foundation for AIDS Research $500,001 – $1,000,000
Arizona State University $500,001 – $1,000,000
Arkansas Energy Office – Arkansas Economic Development $500,001 – $1,000,000
Arpad Busson $500,001 – $1,000,000
Atlas Group Limited $500,001 – $1,000,000
Autodesk, Inc. $500,001 – $1,000,000
Bank of America Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
Barclays PLC $500,001 – $1,000,000
Barlovento Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
Beryl Snyder $500,001 – $1,000,000
Brian L. Greenspun $500,001 – $1,000,000
Brian S. Snyder $500,001 – $1,000,000
Carlos Bremer $500,001 – $1,000,000
Carole Shields Westbrook and Hugh A. Westbrook $500,001 – $1,000,000
Chevron Corporation $500,001 – $1,000,000
Citigroup Inc $500,001 – $1,000,000
Confederação Nacional da Indústria (CNI) $500,001 – $1,000,000
Confederation of Indian Industry $500,001 – $1,000,000
Crabby Beach Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
Daimler Trucks North America LLC $500,001 – $1,000,000
Dell Inc. $500,001 – $1,000,000
Delos Living $500,001 – $1,000,000
Depart of Finance & Admin. – State Fiscal Stabilization Fund $500,001 – $1,000,000
Desert Classic Charities Inc $500,001 – $1,000,000
EKTA Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
Emerson Collective $500,001 – $1,000,000
Energy Developments and Investments Corporation $500,001 – $1,000,000
Ferraro Family Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
Frederick Baron $500,001 – $1,000,000
General Electric $500,001 – $1,000,000
Gerald and Elaine Schuster $500,001 – $1,000,000
Global Impact $500,001 – $1,000,000
Google Inc. $500,001 – $1,000,000
Grupo ABC $500,001 – $1,000,000
Gustavo Cisneros & Venevision $500,001 – $1,000,000
Hernreich Family Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
HSBC Holdings $500,001 – $1,000,000
Itaú Unibanco S/A $500,001 – $1,000,000
Jackson T. Stephens $500,001 – $1,000,000
Jay S. Jacobs $500,001 – $1,000,000
Jay Snyder $500,001 – $1,000,000
Jonathan and Jeannie Lavine, Trustees of the Crimson Lion Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
Jordan Sidoo $500,001 – $1,000,000
Karlheinz Kögel $500,001 – $1,000,000
Kjell I. Røkke $500,001 – $1,000,000
Kresge Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
Lewis B. Cullman $500,001 – $1,000,000
Lizzie and Jonathan Tisch $500,001 – $1,000,000
Magna International Inc. $500,001 – $1,000,000
Malini Alles $500,001 – $1,000,000
Masimo Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
Matias Garfunkel $500,001 – $1,000,000
McKinsey & Company $500,001 – $1,000,000
Michael J. Cooper $500,001 – $1,000,000
Mobile Giving Foundation Inc. $500,001 – $1,000,000
Monsanto Company $500,001 – $1,000,000
News Corporation Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
Nike, Inc. $500,001 – $1,000,000
NoVo Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
OSI Development Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
Pangaea Global AIDS Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
Patricia A. Hotung $500,001 – $1,000,000
Paul Newman and Newman’s Own Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
People’s Postcode Trust $500,001 – $1,000,000
Peter B. Lewis $500,001 – $1,000,000
PricewaterhouseCoopers $500,001 – $1,000,000
Raj Fernando $500,001 – $1,000,000
Recep Özkan $500,001 – $1,000,000
Ruettgers Family Charitable Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
Sangari $500,001 – $1,000,000
Sanyo North America Corporation $500,001 – $1,000,000
Sean N. Parker Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
Segal Family Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
Simón P. Barceló $500,001 – $1,000,000
Soros Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
Sybil Robson Orr and Matthew Orr $500,001 – $1,000,000
Taiwan Economic and Cultural Office $500,001 – $1,000,000
The Allstate Corporation $500,001 – $1,000,000
The David Geffen Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
The Harrah’s Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
The John C. Armitage Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
The Pierre and Pamela Omidyar Fund $500,001 – $1,000,000
The Rumi Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
The Sainsbury Family Charitable Trust $500,001 – $1,000,000
The Ted Arison Family Foundation USA, Inc. $500,001 – $1,000,000
The Winnick Family Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
UBS Wealth Management USA $500,001 – $1,000,000
University of Southern California $500,001 – $1,000,000
Visa Inc. $500,001 – $1,000,000
Western Union Foundation $500,001 – $1,000,000
AAUW $250,001 – $500,000
Abbas I. Al Yousef $250,001 – $500,000
Accoona Corporation $250,001 – $500,000
Ajit Gulabchand $250,001 – $500,000
American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees $250,001 – $500,000
American International Group, Inc. (AIG) $250,001 – $500,000
American University in Dubai $250,001 – $500,000
AMIL $250,001 – $500,000
Amy J. Rao $250,001 – $500,000
Andrade Gutierrez S.A. $250,001 – $500,000
Andrew Houston $250,001 – $500,000
Andrew Tobias $250,001 – $500,000
Andy Nahas $250,001 – $500,000
Anim LLC $250,001 – $500,000
Anson and Debra Beard $250,001 – $500,000
Anthony S. Melikhov $250,001 – $500,000
Arthur W. Rabin $250,001 – $500,000
Audre J. Rapoport $250,001 – $500,000
Avram A. and Jill H. Glazer Family $250,001 – $500,000
Banco Santander Brasil S.A. $250,001 – $500,000
Barrick Gold Corporation $250,001 – $500,000
Beth and David Shaw $250,001 – $500,000
Bright Future International $250,001 – $500,000
Centene Charitable Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
Charles Dunstone Charitable Trust $250,001 – $500,000
Charles Kushner $250,001 – $500,000
Charles Stewart Mott Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
Cheniere Energy Shared Services, Inc. $250,001 – $500,000
City of Little Rock $250,001 – $500,000
David Lyall $250,001 – $500,000
Denise Rich $250,001 – $500,000
Deutsche Bank AG $250,001 – $500,000
Deutsche Bank Americas $250,001 – $500,000
Embassy of Algeria $250,001 – $500,000
Emmanuel Roman $250,001 – $500,000
Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada $250,001 – $500,000
Frank E. Holmes $250,001 – $500,000
Fred Bacher $250,001 – $500,000
Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
Fuel Freedom Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
George M. Marcus $250,001 – $500,000
Glenn H. Hutchins $250,001 – $500,000
Goldman Sachs Philanthropy Fund $250,001 – $500,000
Green Family Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
Happy Hearts Fund $250,001 – $500,000
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt $250,001 – $500,000
Howard A. Rubin $250,001 – $500,000
Ibrahim El-Hefni Technical Training Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
IF Hummingbird Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
Imaad Zuberi $250,001 – $500,000
InfoGROUP $250,001 – $500,000
Intel Corporation $250,001 – $500,000
InterEnergy $250,001 – $500,000
Ira H. Leesfield $250,001 – $500,000
J. B. Fuqua $250,001 – $500,000
Jana Fant $250,001 – $500,000
Jewish Community Foundation of San Diego $250,001 – $500,000
John and Margo Catsimatidis $250,001 – $500,000
John L. Morgan $250,001 – $500,000
Joseph A. Stroud $250,001 – $500,000
Joseph Milton $250,001 – $500,000
Katsuhiko Yoshida $250,001 – $500,000
Kevin Jardine $250,001 – $500,000
Lalit Suri $250,001 – $500,000
Laurie Lerner $250,001 – $500,000
MacArthur Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
Malaria No More $250,001 – $500,000
Marc B. Nathanson $250,001 – $500,000
Mark L. Walsh $250,001 – $500,000
Martin Davis $250,001 – $500,000
Martin Varsavsky $250,001 – $500,000
Maximilian D. Stone $250,001 – $500,000
McDonald’s Corporation $250,001 – $500,000
Melvin and Bren Simon Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
Merck & Co., Inc. $250,001 – $500,000
Michael Lee-Chin $250,001 – $500,000
Michael Rienzi $250,001 – $500,000
Morgan Stanley Smith Barney Global Impact Funding Trust, Inc $250,001 – $500,000
Nancy Ellison and William Rollnick $250,001 – $500,000
New York’s Health & Human Service Union, 1199/SEIU $250,001 – $500,000
Niklas Zennström $250,001 – $500,000
Niko Elmaleh $250,001 – $500,000
Noble Energy, Inc. $250,001 – $500,000
Oando PLC Group $250,001 – $500,000
Oliver Bock $250,001 – $500,000
Orbitex Management Inc. $250,001 – $500,000
Oscar de la Renta $250,001 – $500,000
Patrick McKillen $250,001 – $500,000
Paul I. Goldenberg $250,001 – $500,000
Paul L. Cejas $250,001 – $500,000
Philip L. Levine $250,001 – $500,000
Philip R. Munger $250,001 – $500,000
Punta Cana Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
Qatar 2022 Supreme Committee $250,001 – $500,000
Richard C. Perry $250,001 – $500,000
Richard M. Scaife $250,001 – $500,000
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
Rolando González-Bunster $250,001 – $500,000
S. Daniel Abraham Center for Middle East Peace $250,001 – $500,000
Sabey Limited $250,001 – $500,000
Sanford Robertson $250,001 – $500,000
Silicon Valley Community Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
Stanley Grossman $250,001 – $500,000
State of Arkansas $250,001 – $500,000
Susie Tompkins Buell Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
Ted Stanley $250,001 – $500,000
The American Ireland Fund $250,001 – $500,000
The Blackstone Group L.P. $250,001 – $500,000
The Brink Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
The California Endowment $250,001 – $500,000
The Eastern Culture Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
The Engleberg Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
The Fuserna Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
The Innocent Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
The Joyce Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
The Landrake Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
The Salem Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
The Weill Family Fund $250,001 – $500,000
Thomas and Donna McLarty $250,001 – $500,000
Thomas D. Sullivan $250,001 – $500,000
Thomas Lee and Ann Tenenbaum $250,001 – $500,000
U.S. Global Investors, Inc. $250,001 – $500,000
United Automobile Workers of America $250,001 – $500,000
United Nations Foundation $250,001 – $500,000
University of California, San Francisco $250,001 – $500,000
Walmart $250,001 – $500,000
William and Tani Austin $250,001 – $500,000
Yongping Duan $250,001 – $500,000
A. Huda Farouki $100,001 – $250,000
Abigail E. Disney $100,001 – $250,000
Accenture LLP $100,001 – $250,000
Adam Said $100,001 – $250,000
African Rainbow Minerals $100,001 – $250,000
Al Sayer Group $100,001 – $250,000
Alan and Susan Patricof $100,001 – $250,000
Alan D. and Susan Lewis Solomont Family Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Alcoa Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Alec E. Gores $100,001 – $250,000
Alfonso Fanjul $100,001 – $250,000
Alfred H. Moses $100,001 – $250,000 Corporation $100,001 – $250,000
Allen Salmasi $100,001 – $250,000
Altman/Kazickas Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Alwaleed Bin Talal Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
American Cancer Society $100,001 – $250,000
American Express Travel Related Services Company $100,001 – $250,000
American Institutes for Research $100,001 – $250,000
American University in Dubai $100,001 – $250,000
AmeriCares Foundation, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
AMP, LLC $100,001 – $250,000
Andrés Santo Domingo $100,001 – $250,000
ANN INC. $100,001 – $250,000
Applied Materials, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
AstraZeneca PLC $100,001 – $250,000
Bal G. Das $100,001 – $250,000
Bank of America Corporation $100,001 – $250,000
Basil O. El-Baz $100,001 – $250,000
Bay Harbour Management $100,001 – $250,000
Becton, Dickinson and Company $100,001 – $250,000
Begas Energy International $100,001 – $250,000
Berry Gordy $100,001 – $250,000
Billye S. Aaron $100,001 – $250,000
Blair W. Effron $100,001 – $250,000
Blayne Johnson $100,001 – $250,000
Bloomberg Philanthropies $100,001 – $250,000
Bluedrop Performance Learning $100,001 – $250,000
BMCE Bank $100,001 – $250,000
Bob Cross $100,001 – $250,000
Bruce A. Karsh $100,001 – $250,000
Bruce E. Karatz $100,001 – $250,000
Burton Ritchie $100,001 – $250,000
CA Technologies $100,001 – $250,000
Caesar’s Entertainment, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Carine S. de Meyere $100,001 – $250,000
Carlos Rodriguez-Pastor $100,001 – $250,000
Catalyst Group $100,001 – $250,000
Cause Media Group $100,001 – $250,000
CCR $100,001 – $250,000
CDI Contractors $100,001 – $250,000
CH2M Hill $100,001 – $250,000
Cherokee Investment Partners $100,001 – $250,000
Chi-Kao Hsu $100,001 – $250,000
Chopper Trading, LLC $100,001 – $250,000
Christopher G. Korge $100,001 – $250,000
Christopher Kelly $100,001 – $250,000
Clifford L. Brown $100,001 – $250,000
Colorado Philanthropy for Early Childhood $100,001 – $250,000
Communications Workers of America $100,001 – $250,000
Contax $100,001 – $250,000
Corning Incorporated $100,001 – $250,000
Corporacion Aeroportuaria Del Este $100,001 – $250,000
Craig M. Hatkoff $100,001 – $250,000
Daiwa Steel Tube, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Dangote Group $100,001 – $250,000
Danny Rimer $100,001 – $250,000
Darden Restaurants, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Daryl A. Katz $100,001 – $250,000
David Freeman $100,001 – $250,000
David I. Fisher $100,001 – $250,000
DaVita Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Dean Ornish $100,001 – $250,000
Declan Kelly $100,001 – $250,000
Dell Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Dennis W. Bakke $100,001 – $250,000
Dermalogica $100,001 – $250,000
Development Specialists, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Devex $100,001 – $250,000
Diane M. Simon $100,001 – $250,000
Digicel $100,001 – $250,000
Don H. Jayawardena $100,001 – $250,000
Donald J. Trump $100,001 – $250,000
Doug Forster $100,001 – $250,000
Douglas C. Ahlers $100,001 – $250,000
Edelman $100,001 – $250,000
Edgar M. Bronfman $100,001 – $250,000
EDP – Energias de Portugal, S.A. $100,001 – $250,000
Eduardo Eurnekian $100,001 – $250,000
Edward M. Gabriel $100,001 – $250,000
Elissa Epstein $100,001 – $250,000
Ellen and Don Walker $100,001 – $250,000
Equity Bank Limited $100,001 – $250,000
Erskine B. Bowles $100,001 – $250,000
Estate of Roger Lee Lewis $100,001 – $250,000
Farhad Azima $100,001 – $250,000
Father’s Day/Mother’s Day Council, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Federal Republic of Germany $100,001 – $250,000
FedEx Kinko’s Office and Print Services $100,001 – $250,000
FHI 360 $100,001 – $250,000
FIA Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Fidelity Charitable Gift Fund $100,001 – $250,000
Frank Islam and Debbie Driesman $100,001 – $250,000
Frank J. McKenna $100,001 – $250,000
Frank White $100,001 – $250,000
Fred George $100,001 – $250,000
Friso Van Oranje $100,001 – $250,000
Fundacion Azteca America $100,001 – $250,000
Gap Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
General Mills, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
George and Boyce Billingsley $100,001 – $250,000
George B. Kaiser $100,001 – $250,000
George Benes $100,001 – $250,000
Gilead Sciences, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Gill Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Giovanni Perissinotto $100,001 – $250,000
Goodwill Industries International, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Greg Dalton $100,001 – $250,000
Greif, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
GSM Association $100,001 – $250,000
Hampshire Hotels & Resorts, LLC $100,001 – $250,000
Hamza B. Al Kholi $100,001 – $250,000
Hani H. Masri $100,001 – $250,000
Harvey Weinstein $100,001 – $250,000
Henry and Marsha Laufer $100,001 – $250,000
Henry Lambertz GmbH & Co. KG $100,001 – $250,000
Herbert C. Klein $100,001 – $250,000
Hertz Corporation $100,001 – $250,000
Hess Corporation $100,001 – $250,000
Howard Stringer $100,001 – $250,000
Howard W. Lutnick $100,001 – $250,000
Humana People to People $100,001 – $250,000
Humanity United $100,001 – $250,000
Hushang Ansary $100,001 – $250,000
Hyundai Motor America $100,001 – $250,000
Ian M. Cumming $100,001 – $250,000
Ian W. Telfer $100,001 – $250,000
ICMediaDirect.Com $100,001 – $250,000
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers $100,001 – $250,000
International Medical Corps $100,001 – $250,000
Irwin M. Jacobs $100,001 – $250,000
Israel Roizman $100,001 – $250,000
Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land, & Sea $100,001 – $250,000
Jair Ribeiro da Silva Neto $100,001 – $250,000
James A. Attwood $100,001 – $250,000
James E. Pederson $100,001 – $250,000
James Stanard $100,001 – $250,000
Janet W. Ketcham Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Jerry Lundergan $100,001 – $250,000
Jhpiego $100,001 – $250,000
Jill Belasco $100,001 – $250,000
Jim Daly $100,001 – $250,000
Jim Levin $100,001 – $250,000
Joe H. Morita $100,001 – $250,000
John D. Nixon $100,001 – $250,000
John M. Connors $100,001 – $250,000
Johnson & Johnson $100,001 – $250,000
Johnson Controls, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Jon S. Corzine $100,001 – $250,000
Jonah Goodhart $100,001 – $250,000
Joseph Safra $100,001 – $250,000
Joyce A. Aboussie $100,001 – $250,000
JPMorgan Chase & Co. $100,001 – $250,000
Julie E. Konigsberg $100,001 – $250,000
Jürgen A. Friedrich $100,001 – $250,000
K.I.D.S., Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Karl Leichtman $100,001 – $250,000
Kathryn and Craig Hall $100,001 – $250,000
Kieran McLoughlin $100,001 – $250,000
Kirk A. Radke $100,001 – $250,000
Knoll, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Ladislav Drab $100,001 – $250,000
Larry T. Roth $100,001 – $250,000
LaSer $100,001 – $250,000
Lata Krishnan $100,001 – $250,000
Laurie and Bill Benenson $100,001 – $250,000
Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Leon Black Family Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Leslois Shaw Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Lewis Energy Group $100,001 – $250,000
Light $100,001 – $250,000
Lily Safra $100,001 – $250,000
Linklaters $100,001 – $250,000
Lions Clubs International Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Living Goods $100,001 – $250,000
Lockheed Martin Corporation $100,001 – $250,000
Loreen J. Arbus $100,001 – $250,000
Lottomatica S.p.A $100,001 – $250,000
Lumina Foundation for Education, Inc $100,001 – $250,000
Lyndon L. Olson $100,001 – $250,000
Lynn F. de Rothschild $100,001 – $250,000
Malaria No More UK $100,001 – $250,000
Mallory M. Walker $100,001 – $250,000
Management Sciences for Health $100,001 – $250,000
Marc Lasry $100,001 – $250,000
Mark Dayton $100,001 – $250,000
Mark H. Getty $100,001 – $250,000
Mark S. Weiner $100,001 – $250,000
Mark T. Gallogly $100,001 – $250,000
Max Markson $100,001 – $250,000
Medtronic, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Merrill Lynch & Company Foundation, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Michael A. Goldberg $100,001 – $250,000
Michael and Beth Coulson $100,001 – $250,000
Michael Haas $100,001 – $250,000
Michael J. Sacks $100,001 – $250,000
Michael P. Norris $100,001 – $250,000
Michael W. Kempner $100,001 – $250,000
Mike Patel $100,001 – $250,000
Mikkel Vestergaard Frandsen $100,001 – $250,000
Mohegan Sun $100,001 – $250,000
Moody’s Corporation $100,001 – $250,000
Morgan Stanley $100,001 – $250,000
Motta Internacional $100,001 – $250,000
MPOWER Labs $100,001 – $250,000
MTV Networks $100,001 – $250,000
MWW Group $100,001 – $250,000
Mylan $100,001 – $250,000
Myron M. Cherry & Associates LLC $100,001 – $250,000
National Constitution Center $100,001 – $250,000
Naza Motor Trading Sdn. Bhd. $100,001 – $250,000
Newsmax Media, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Noah Goodhart $100,001 – $250,000
Oak Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Ogilvy Public Relations Worldwide $100,001 – $250,000
Oi Móvel $100,001 – $250,000
Oleg Nodelman $100,001 – $250,000
Omar Saeed $100,001 – $250,000
OMD USA, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Omidyar Network $100,001 – $250,000
Once Upon A Time Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Opportunity International $100,001 – $250,000
OVG $100,001 – $250,000
Palantir Technologies, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Pamela Buffett $100,001 – $250,000
Pankobirlik $100,001 – $250,000
Partners in Health $100,001 – $250,000
Pat Tillman Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Patrick Heiniger $100,001 – $250,000
Paul Neaville $100,001 – $250,000
Paul R. Beirne $100,001 – $250,000
PepsiCo $100,001 – $250,000
Peter A. Buffett $100,001 – $250,000
Peter Kalikow $100,001 – $250,000
Philip D. and Tammy S. Murphy Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Phoebe Snow Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Poju Zabludowicz $100,001 – $250,000
Preston H. Haskell $100,001 – $250,000
Qatar Foundation International $100,001 – $250,000
Quadrant Capital Advisors, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Qualcomm Incorporated $100,001 – $250,000
Raani Corporation $100,001 – $250,000
Ramsey Social Justice Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
RCN International Distribution LLC $100,001 – $250,000
Reliance Europe Limited $100,001 – $250,000
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute $100,001 – $250,000
Richard S. Park $100,001 – $250,000
Richard W. Hotes $100,001 – $250,000
Riggs, Abney, Neal, Turpen, Orbison, Lewis $100,001 – $250,000
Robert A. Walker $100,001 – $250,000
Robert Dorrance $100,001 – $250,000
Robyn Speak Walsh $100,001 – $250,000
Roger McNamee $100,001 – $250,000
Ronald M. Cohen $100,001 – $250,000
Ronald O. Perelman $100,001 – $250,000
Ross M. Deutsch $100,001 – $250,000
Ryan Beedie $100,001 – $250,000
Safo LLC $100,001 – $250,000 Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Samsung Electronics America, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Samuel A. Keesal $100,001 – $250,000
Samuel, Son & Co., Limited $100,001 – $250,000
Sandler Family Supporting Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Sanofi-Aventis $100,001 – $250,000
Sarina Russo $100,001 – $250,000
Sarina Russo Job Access $100,001 – $250,000
SBC Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Sekunjalo Investments Limited $100,001 – $250,000
SICPA SA $100,001 – $250,000
Skoll Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Solazyme, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Sony Computer Entertainment America, LLC $100,001 – $250,000
South East Asia Climate Change Network $100,001 – $250,000
Stanley M. Chesley $100,001 – $250,000
Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Stephanie Pace Marshall $100,001 – $250,000
Steven Sawalich $100,001 – $250,000
Studio Moderna $100,001 – $250,000
Sunbelt Communications Company $100,001 – $250,000
Swedbank $100,001 – $250,000
Swiss Re America Holding Company $100,001 – $250,000
Taybridge Limited $100,001 – $250,000
Teena Hostovich $100,001 – $250,000
Teleperformance Group, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
The Abundance Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The American Jewish Committee $100,001 – $250,000
The Barrack Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The Beatrice Snyder Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The Berry Gordy Family Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The Carsey Family Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The Clarence and Anne Dillon Dunwalke Trust $100,001 – $250,000
The Doris and Donald Fisher Fund $100,001 – $250,000
The Dozoretz Family Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The Entertainment Industry Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The Estate of Mary Perry $100,001 – $250,000
The Firmenich Charitable Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The ForeSight Group $100,001 – $250,000
The Forward Electric Company, Ltd. $100,001 – $250,000
The Garfinkle Minard Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria $100,001 – $250,000
The Greater Saint Louis Community Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The Greif Packaging Charitable Trust $100,001 – $250,000
The Herman and Gerda Lissner Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The Hermelin Family Support Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The Honorable and Mrs. Terry McAuliffe $100,001 – $250,000
The Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The John D. Evans Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The Karan-Weiss Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The Kind World Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The Lemelson Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The MAC AIDS Fund $100,001 – $250,000
The MasterCard Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The May and Samuel Rudin Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The Monte dei Paschi di Siena $100,001 – $250,000
The Nduna Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The Nurture Nature Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The Radcliffe Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The Schooner Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The Shelly and Donald Rubin Foundation, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
The Spirit Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The Stassen Group $100,001 – $250,000
The Travelers Companies, Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
The Trinity Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) $100,001 – $250,000
The UPS Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
The Wagner Family Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Thomas F. Steyer $100,001 – $250,000
TIAA-CREF $100,001 – $250,000
Tilder $100,001 – $250,000
Timothy C. Collins $100,001 – $250,000
Todd Wagner $100,001 – $250,000
TOMS Shoes $100,001 – $250,000
Trio Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Turki A. Al Saud $100,001 – $250,000
United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices $100,001 – $250,000
University of Miami $100,001 – $250,000
Val Halamandaris $100,001 – $250,000
Verizon Communications Inc. $100,001 – $250,000
Virgin Group Limited $100,001 – $250,000
Voya Foundation $100,001 – $250,000
Wallace Global Fund $100,001 – $250,000
Washington University in St. Louis $100,001 – $250,000
Webcor Group $100,001 – $250,000
Wendy Abrams $100,001 – $250,000
William D. Schoenfeld $100,001 – $250,000
William M. Daley $100,001 – $250,000
William S. Lerach $100,001 – $250,000
William Wardlaw $100,001 – $250,000
XANTOS s.a.s. $100,001 – $250,000
Yahoo! Inc $100,001 – $250,000

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