Eric Zuesse – China and Russia, ChinUssia or RussChina, Announce Their Foreign Policy

China and Russia, ChinUssia or RussChina, Announce Their Foreign Policy

Here is the 16 May 2024 joint document from the Governments of China and Russia, announcing their foreign policy, the principles that are guiding and will continue to guide it — both of those two sovereign countries. I am posting it here online because when I checked online, on May 19th, trying to find it it English, I still didn’t find it; and, because it is certainly a document of major interest to historians, and should be widely available in an English-language translation, I am now rectifying that lack by posting it online here, in English.

Joint Statement between the People’s Republic of China and the Russian Federation on Deepening the Comprehensive Strategic Partnership of Coordination for A New Era on the Occasion of the 75th Anniversary of the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the Two Countries

People’s Republic of China and Russian Federation

On the Occasion of the 75th Anniversary of the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the Two Countries

On Deepening Comprehensive Strategic Cooperation in the New Era

Joint Statement of Partnership

At the invitation of President Xi Jinping of the People’s Republic of China, President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin will pay a state visit to the People’s Republic of China from May 16 to 17, 2024. The two heads of state held formal talks in Beijing and jointly attended the opening ceremony of the 2024-2025 China-Russia Cultural Year and a special concert marking the 75th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Russia. Li Qiang, Premier of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China, met with Russian President Vladimir Putin.

Russian President Vladimir Putin also went to Harbin to attend the opening ceremony of the 8th China-Russia Expo.

The People’s Republic of China and the Russian Federation (hereinafter referred to as the “Parties”), declare as follows:


In 2024, China and Russia will grandly celebrate the 75th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries. Over the past 75 years, China-Russia relations have gone through an extraordinary development process. The Soviet Union was the first country in the world to recognize and establish diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the People’s Republic of China recognized the Russian Federation as the legal successor state of the Soviet Union and reiterated its willingness to develop Sino-Russian relations on the basis of equality, mutual respect, and mutually beneficial cooperation. The “Treaty of Good-Neighborliness, Friendship and Cooperation between the People’s Republic of China and the Russian Federation” signed on July 16, 2001 laid a solid foundation for the continued and comprehensive strengthening of Sino-Russian relations. The positioning of bilateral relations has been continuously improved, reaching the highest level in history of the Comprehensive Strategic Partnership of Coordination for a New Era. Thanks to the unremitting efforts of both sides, China-Russia relations follow the national interests of both countries, uphold the spirit of permanent good-neighborliness and friendship, and maintain healthy and stable development.

Both sides pointed out that the current Sino-Russian relations transcend the military and political alliance model of the Cold War and are non-aligned, non-confrontational and not directed against third parties. In the face of the turbulent and changing world landscape, China-Russia relations have withstood the test of the changing international situation, highlighted their characteristics of stability and resilience, and are at the best level in history. The two sides emphasized that developing the China-Russia comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination for a new era is in the fundamental interests of the two countries and their peoples. It is not a temporary measure, is not affected by temporary events, and has strong endogenous driving force and independent value. Both sides resolutely defend their legitimate rights and interests and oppose any attempt to obstruct the normal development of bilateral relations, interfere in the internal affairs of the two countries, and restrict the economic, technological and international space of the two countries.

The two sides reaffirmed that China and Russia have always regarded each other as priority partners, always adhered to mutual respect, equal treatment, and win-win cooperation, and always abided by the Charter of the United Nations, international law and the basic norms of international relations. They have become major powers in the world and each other’s largest neighbors. A model for relationships. The two sides are willing to further deepen comprehensive strategic coordination, firmly support each other on issues involving each other’s core interests such as sovereignty, territorial integrity, security and development, reasonably and effectively leverage their respective advantages, focus on safeguarding the security and stability of their respective countries, and promote development and revitalization. The two sides will abide by the principles established in the China-Russia Treaty of Good-Neighborliness, Friendship and Cooperation signed on July 16, 2001, as well as other bilateral documents and statements, and carry out high-quality, high-level mutually beneficial cooperation in a wide range of areas.

China welcomes the successful presidential election of the Russian Federation in March 2024. It believes that this election is highly organized, open, objective and universal. The results fully demonstrate that the national policies pursued by the Russian government have broad support and that the same development trend has been achieved. Friendly relations with the People’s Republic of China are an important part of Russia’s foreign policy.

China strongly condemns all the organizers, perpetrators and planners of the inhumane terrorist attack in Moscow Oblast on March 22, 2024, believes that attacks on civilians are completely unacceptable, and supports Russia in resolutely combating terrorist and extremist forces and safeguarding national peace. Stablize.

Russia reiterated its adherence to the one-China principle, recognized Taiwan as an inalienable part of the People’s Republic of China, opposed any form of “Taiwan independence,” and firmly supported China’s measures to safeguard national sovereignty and territorial integrity and achieve national reunification. China supports Russia in safeguarding its security, stability, development and prosperity, sovereignty and territorial integrity, and opposes external forces interfering in Russia’s internal affairs.

The two sides pointed out that major changes in the world are accelerating, the status and strength of emerging powers in the “Global South” countries and regions are constantly increasing, and the multi-polarization of the world is accelerating. These objective factors accelerate the redistribution of development potential, resources, opportunities, etc. in a direction that is beneficial to emerging markets and developing countries, and promote the democratization of international relations and international fairness and justice. Countries that adhere to hegemonism and power politics run counter to this and attempt to replace and subvert the recognized international order based on international law with a “rules-based order.” The two sides emphasized that China’s concept of building a community with a shared future for mankind and a series of global initiatives are of great and positive significance.

As independent forces in the process of building a multipolar world, China and Russia will fully tap the potential of their relations, promote the realization of an equal and orderly world multipolarity and the democratization of international relations, and pool their strength to build a fair and reasonable multipolar world.

Both sides believe that all countries have the right to independently choose development models and political, economic and social systems based on their national conditions and the will of their people, and oppose interference in the internal affairs of sovereign countries, and oppose unilateral sanctions and “long-arm jurisdiction” that have no basis in international law and are not authorized by the Security Council.” and oppose drawing ideological lines. The two sides pointed out that neocolonialism and hegemonism completely went against the trend of the times, and called for equal dialogue, the development of partnerships, and the promotion of exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations.

Both sides will continue to firmly defend the victory of World War II and the post-war world order enshrined in the United Nations Charter, and oppose the denial, distortion and tampering of the history of World War II. Both sides pointed out that it is necessary to educate the correct view of history, protect the world’s anti-fascist memorial facilities from desecration or damage, and severely condemn the beautification of, or even attempts to revive, Nazism and militarism. The two sides plan to grandly celebrate the 80th anniversary of the victory of the Chinese People’s War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression and the Soviet Union’s Patriotic War in 2025, and jointly promote the correct [i.e., truthful] historical view of World War II.


The two sides will take the lead of heads of state diplomacy to promote the all-round development of China-Russia comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination for a new era. The two sides will fully implement the important consensus reached by the two heads of state, continue to maintain close high-level exchanges, ensure the smooth operation of government, local and non-governmental exchange mechanisms, and actively study and create new cooperation channels.

The two sides will continue to carry out exchanges between the leaders of the legislative bodies of the two countries, deepen cooperation between the parliamentary cooperation committees, joint working groups, special committees, and parliamentary friendship groups of the two countries, and maintain exchanges and cooperation between the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the Office of the President of the Russian Federation. Carry out mutual trust dialogue within the framework of strategic security consultation and law enforcement security cooperation mechanisms to promote exchanges between the political parties of the two countries as well as non-governmental and academic circles.

Both sides were pleased to point out that the two countries have steadily carried out defense cooperation based on a high level of strategic mutual trust and effectively safeguarded regional and global security. The two sides will further deepen military mutual trust and cooperation, expand the scale of joint training activities, regularly organize joint maritime and air patrols, strengthen coordination and cooperation under bilateral and multilateral frameworks, and continuously improve the ability and level of both parties to jointly respond to risks and challenges.

Both sides attach great importance to cooperation in the field of law enforcement and security, and are willing to strengthen cooperation in combating terrorism, separatism, extremism, and transnational organized crime bilaterally and within the frameworks of the United Nations, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, and BRICS. The two sides are committed to strengthening cooperation between local law enforcement agencies of the two countries in border areas.

The two sides pointed out that it is unacceptable to interfere in the sovereign affairs of countries by using multilateral or national justice, or providing assistance to foreign judicial institutions or multilateral legal mechanisms, and expressed deep concern about the increasing politicization of international criminal justice and the violation of human rights and sovereign immunity. Both sides believe that any country or group taking such measures is illegal, violates universally recognized norms of international law, and will damage the international community’s ability to fight crime.

Both sides believe that, in accordance with the basic principle of international law of the sovereign equality of all states, the international obligations under which the countries concerned and their property (including sovereign reserves) enjoy immunity must be strictly observed. Both sides condemned attempts to confiscate foreign assets and property and stressed the right of the victimized country to take countermeasures in accordance with international law. Both sides are determined to provide protection for each other’s national property in their respective countries and ensure the safety, inviolability and timely return of the other party’s national property during temporary transportation to their respective countries.

The two parties plan to improve the legal judgment recognition and enforcement mechanism stipulated in the Treaty between the People’s Republic of China and the Russian Federation on Civil and Criminal Judicial Assistance signed on June 19, 1992.

The two sides will continue to strengthen practical cooperation in the field of emergency management, cooperate in the fields of space monitoring, aviation rescue technology and other disaster prevention, disaster reduction and relief, and safety production, and organize joint rescue exercises and training.


Both sides believe that pragmatic cooperation between China and Russia is an important factor in promoting the economic and social development and common prosperity of the two countries, ensuring technological progress and national economic sovereignty, realizing national modernization, improving people’s well-being, and maintaining world economic stability and sustainability. Both sides are willing to promote inclusive and inclusive economic globalization. Both sides saw with satisfaction that practical cooperation between China and Russia in various fields continues to advance and achieve positive results. The two sides are willing to continue to deepen cooperation in various fields in accordance with the principle of mutual benefit and win-win, work closely together to overcome external challenges and adverse factors, improve the efficiency of bilateral cooperation, and achieve stable and high-quality development of cooperation. To this end, both parties agreed:

——In accordance with the “Joint Statement of the President of the People’s Republic of China and the President of the Russian Federation on the Development Plan of Key Directions for Sino-Russian Economic Cooperation before 2030”, vigorously promote cooperation in various fields to achieve high-quality development.

——Continue to expand the scale of bilateral trade, optimize the trade structure, deepen cooperation in the fields of service trade, e-commerce, digital economy, and sustainable development, and jointly maintain the stability and security of the industrial and supply chains.

——Welcome to hold the 8th China-Russia Expo in Harbin, China, and support representatives from all walks of life in China and Russia to participate in important forums and exhibitions held in the two countries.

——Continuously improve the level of investment cooperation between the two countries, jointly promote the implementation of major cooperation projects, protect the rights and interests of investors, and create fair and just conditions for investment. Actively bring into play the role of the coordination mechanism in the investment field between the two countries. Upgrade the Agreement between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of the Russian Federation on the Promotion and Mutual Protection of Investments as soon as possible.

——Accelerate the formulation and approval of a new version of the “China-Russia Investment Cooperation Plan Outline” in 2024, fully promote the implementation of the “Outline” and enhance the effectiveness of bilateral investment cooperation.

——Continue to consolidate China-Russia energy strategic cooperation and achieve high-level development to ensure the economic and energy security of both countries. Efforts should be made to ensure the stability and sustainability of the international energy market and to maintain the stability and resilience of the global energy industry chain and supply chain. Carry out cooperation in oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, coal, electricity and other fields in accordance with market principles to ensure the stable operation of relevant cross-border infrastructure and unimpeded energy transportation. Jointly promote the implementation of large-scale energy projects by Chinese and Russian enterprises and deepen cooperation in promising areas such as renewable energy, hydrogen energy and carbon markets.

——Based on the experience of projects that have been successfully implemented and are being implemented, deepen cooperation in the field of civilian nuclear energy, including thermonuclear fusion, fast neutron reactors, and nuclear fuel closed cycles, in accordance with the principles of mutual benefit, win-win results, and balanced interests, and explore a comprehensive approach to nuclear fuel development Cycle front-end and co-construction of nuclear power plants.

——Increase the share of local currencies in bilateral trade, financing and other economic activities. Improve the financial infrastructure of the two countries and smooth the settlement channels for business entities between the two countries. Strengthen regulatory cooperation in the banking and insurance industries between China and Russia, promote the steady development of banks and insurance institutions established by both sides in each other’s territory, encourage two-way investment, and issue bonds in the other country’s financial market on the premise of adhering to market-oriented principles. Support further cooperation in the fields of insurance, reinsurance and improving payment convenience to create good conditions for the growth of tourists from both sides. On the basis of mutual recognition of the equivalence of accounting standards (in the field of bond issuance), auditing standards and audit supervision between China and Russia, we will actively promote mutually beneficial cooperation in practical fields.

——Carry out financial intelligence cooperation between China and Russia, jointly prevent risks such as money laundering and terrorist financing, and continue to strengthen collaboration under the multilateral framework against money laundering.

——Enhance the level of cooperation in the fields of industry and innovation, jointly develop advanced industries, and strengthen technology and production cooperation, including civil aviation manufacturing, shipbuilding, automobile manufacturing, equipment manufacturing, electronics industry, metallurgy, iron ore mining, chemical industry, etc. industry and forest industry. Create good conditions for both sides to implement promising projects in priority areas, expand trade in industrial products and increase their proportion in bilateral trade, and promote the industrial modernization process of the two countries.

——Carry out mutually beneficial cooperation in the field of information and communication technology, including artificial intelligence, communications, software, Internet of Things, open source, network and data security, electronic games, radio frequency coordination, vocational education and professional scientific research.

——Consolidate the long-term partnership between the two sides in the aerospace field, implement major national space program projects that are in the common interests of China and Russia, promote cooperation in the field of lunar and deep space exploration including the construction of international lunar scientific research stations, and strengthen Beidou and GLONASS satellite navigation System application cooperation.

——Unleash the huge potential for cooperation in the agricultural field, expand mutual market access for agricultural products between the two countries, and improve the level of trade in soybeans and their processed products, pork, aquatic products, grains, oils, fruits, vegetables and nuts, and other agricultural and food products. Deepen agricultural investment cooperation and continue to study the establishment of Sino-Russian agricultural cooperation experimental demonstration zones in the Russian Far East and other regions.

——Deepen transportation, logistics and port cooperation, build stable, smooth and sustainable transportation and logistics corridors, and develop direct or transit transportation lines between the two countries. Simultaneously strengthen the construction of border port infrastructure, strengthen standardized management of ports, improve port inspection efficiency and customs clearance capabilities, and ensure smooth and smooth two-way transportation of passengers and goods. Improve the customs clearance and transportation capabilities of China-Europe trains transiting Russia to jointly ensure safe and efficient cargo transportation. Based on the strategic significance of the China-Russia partnership, we should actively promote the development of air transport and encourage airlines from both sides to add more routes and flights in a standardized manner to cover more areas.

——Strengthen cooperation in the customs field, focus on promoting “single window” exchanges and cooperation in international trade, apply modern supervision mechanisms and automated management processes, further promote trade exchanges, improve the transparency of import and export business, and effectively crack down on customs violations.

——Strengthen the exchange of experience and practice sharing in the protection and application of intellectual property rights, and give full play to the important role of intellectual property rights in promoting scientific and technological innovation and economic and social development.

——Strengthen mutually beneficial cooperation in the field of competition policy, including cooperation in law enforcement and protection of competition rules in commodity markets (including digital commodity markets), and create favorable conditions for economic and trade cooperation between the two sides.

——Further promote cooperation in industry, infrastructure, housing and urban development.

——Establish a China-Russia Arctic Waterway Cooperation Subcommittee within the framework of the China-Russia Prime Minister Regular Meeting Committee mechanism to carry out mutually beneficial cooperation in the development and utilization of the Arctic, protect the Arctic ecosystem, promote the construction of the Arctic waterway into an important international transportation corridor, and encourage the two countries to Chinese enterprises have strengthened cooperation in increasing Arctic shipping volumes and building Arctic shipping logistics infrastructure. Deepen cooperation in polar ship technology and construction.

——Actively support local cooperation and border cooperation, and expand comprehensive exchanges between local governments in the two countries. Under the framework of the preferential system in the Russian Far East, we will strengthen investment cooperation in accordance with the principles of marketization and commercialization, and carry out cooperative production in industrial and high-tech industries. Follow the principles of good neighborliness and respect for national sovereignty to jointly develop Heixiazi Island (Great Ussuri Island). Accelerate negotiations on the text of the Intergovernmental Agreement (Draft) on the Navigation of Chinese and Russian Vessels in the Waters Around Heixiazi Island (Tarabarov Island and Bolishaoy Ussurisky Island). The two sides will conduct constructive dialogue with the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea on the issue of Chinese ships sailing through the lower reaches of the Tumen River.

——Deepen environmental protection cooperation and strengthen cooperation in areas such as transboundary water body protection, environmental pollution emergency liaison, biodiversity protection and solid waste treatment.

——Continue to collaborate closely to improve the environmental quality of the border areas between the two countries.

——Continue to strengthen collaboration, implement the “Economic and Trade Cooperation Agreement between the People’s Republic of China and the Eurasian Economic Union” signed on May 17, 2018, promote the docking cooperation between the joint construction of the “Belt and Road” and the construction of the Eurasian Economic Union, and deepen the overall development of the Eurasian region. azimuth cooperation and interconnection.

——Continue to implement the consensus reached by the two heads of state on the parallel and coordinated development of the Belt and Road Initiative and the Greater Eurasian Partnership, and create conditions for the independent and steady economic and social development of Asian and European countries.

——Continue to carry out trilateral cooperation between China, Russia and Mongolia in accordance with documents such as the “Medium-term Roadmap for the Development of Trilateral Cooperation between China, Russia and Mongolia” and the “Outline Plan for the Construction of the China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor”.


Both sides believe that people-to-people and cultural exchanges are of extremely important and far-reaching significance in enhancing mutual understanding, carrying forward the tradition of good-neighborliness and friendship, continuing the friendship from generation to generation between the two peoples, and consolidating the social foundation of bilateral relations. Both sides are willing to work together to actively expand people-to-people and cultural cooperation between the two countries, enhance the level of cooperation, and expand cooperation results. To this end, both parties agreed:

——Continue to deepen educational cooperation and improve the legislative foundation. Promote two-way study abroad to expand scale and improve quality, promote Chinese teaching in Russia and Russian teaching in China, encourage educational institutions to expand exchanges, cooperate in running schools, carry out joint training of high-level talents and joint scientific research, support cooperation in basic research between universities, and support Similar university alliances and secondary school alliances carry out activities to deepen cooperation in vocational and digital education.

——Deepen scientific and technological exchanges. Give full play to the potential for cooperation in basic and applied research, expand cooperation under the framework of large scientific facilities, support the joint construction of modern laboratories and advanced scientific research centers, safeguard the initiative of the two countries in scientific and technological development, promote personnel exchanges, and carry out interdisciplinary climate change research.

——Make full use of the opportunity of the China-Russia Culture Year 2024-2025 to carry out comprehensive exchanges in the fields of theatrical performances, museums, libraries, cultural heritage protection, art education and creative industries. Expand the areas for cultural exchanges and actively promote the participation of local youth and cultural workers in China and Russia. Continue to hold cultural festivals, library forums and Chinese and Russian cultural gatherings. Encourage research into new initiatives such as the “International Pop Song Contest”. Both sides believe that the diversity and uniqueness of culture and civilization are the foundation of a multi-polar world, and will carry out exchanges, cooperation and mutual learning based on this, and oppose the politicization of culture, the discriminatory and exclusive “civilization superiority theory”, and the opposition of some countries and The nation’s implementation of “cancel culture” and the destruction and demolition of memorial and religious facilities have pushed more countries to identify with traditional moral values.

——Carry out dialogue on the protection, research, repair and utilization of historical religious facilities, martyrs’ memorial facilities and historical and cultural heritage.

——Promote cooperation in the film field, including China’s support for Russia in establishing the Eurasian Academy of Cinematic Arts and the establishment of the “Open Eurasian Film Awards”, and will actively consider selecting films to participate in relevant awards activities.

——Continue to promote cooperation in health fields such as disaster medicine, infectious diseases, oncology and nuclear medicine, ophthalmology, pharmacology, maternal and child health, etc. Use advanced experience in the field of modern medical technology to promote the cultivation of advanced medical talents.

——Carry out cooperation in the prevention and control of infectious diseases, local and cross-border transmission of health, expand cooperation in early warning and response to biological disasters, safeguard the national sovereignty of the two countries in the biological field, and attach great importance to relevant cooperation in the border areas between China and Russia.

——Highly appraise the achievements of the China-Russia Sports Exchange Year 2022-2023, continue to pragmatically promote cooperation in the field of sports, and deepen exchanges in various projects. China speaks highly of the first “Future Games” hosted by Russia in Kazan in 2024 and supports Russia in hosting the BRICS Games. Both sides oppose the politicization of sports and any use of sports as a tool to discriminate against athletes on the basis of nationality, language, religion, political or other beliefs, race and social origin, and call on the international community to carry out equal international sports cooperation in accordance with the Olympic spirit and principles.

——Expand cooperation in the field of tourism, create good conditions for increasing the number of mutual visits between China and Russia, promote the development of cross-border tourism, and jointly implement the “Mutual Exemption of Group Tourist Visas between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of the Russian Federation” signed on February 29, 2000 Agreement” and speed up negotiations on amending the agreement.

——Strengthen media exchanges between the two countries, promote mutual visits between personnel at all levels, support pragmatic and professional dialogue, actively carry out high-quality content cooperation, deeply explore the cooperation potential of new media and new technologies in the field of mass media, objectively and comprehensively report major global events, and promote international The public opinion field disseminates true information. Continue to promote the exchange of knowledge and experience and cooperation between the two countries’ book translation and publishing institutions, and promote the mutual broadcast of TV channels.

——Support cooperation between archives departments, including the exchange of advanced work experience and archive information, as well as the joint preparation of archive publications and the implementation of exhibition projects on the history of China and Russia and the history of relations between the two countries.

——Support the work of the China-Russia Friendship, Peace and Development Committee, encourage cooperation through the China Friendship Association and other non-governmental friendship groups, promote non-governmental exchanges and mutual understanding between China and Russia, and strengthen exchanges between experts and think tanks of the two countries.

——Strengthen cooperation in the field of youth, carry out education on ideals, beliefs, correct values and patriotism, and support youth innovation and entrepreneurship, volunteer service and enhance creativity. In order to consolidate and enrich the results of the World Youth Festival and the World Youth Development Forum, continue to deepen youth exchanges at all levels, collaborate on multilateral youth platforms, and promote common ideas for international cooperation.


Both sides reaffirmed their commitment to building a more just and stable multi-polar international architecture, fully respecting and abiding by the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter unconditionally, and safeguarding true multilateralism. Both sides emphasized that the work of the “Group of Friends to Defend the United Nations Charter” should be further strengthened.

The two sides are willing to deepen bilateral cooperation within the framework of the United Nations, including the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council, and should strengthen collaboration when discussing important international issues within various United Nations agencies.

The two sides are willing to continue to work together to promote constructive dialogue and cooperation among all parties in the field of multilateral human rights, advocate common values for all mankind, oppose the politicization of human rights, double standards and the use of human rights issues to interfere in other countries’ internal affairs, and jointly promote all aspects of the international human rights agenda. healthy growth.

In order to improve the health of all mankind, the two sides continue to collaborate closely on global health issues, including supporting the role of the World Health Organization and opposing the politicization of its work.

Both sides firmly promote an open, inclusive, transparent and non-discriminatory multilateral trading system based on the rules of the World Trade Organization. The two sides are willing to strengthen cooperation under the WTO framework, promote WTO reform including restoring the normal operation of the dispute settlement mechanism, and promote the implementation of the outcomes of the 13th WTO Ministerial Conference. Both sides oppose the politicization of international economic relations, including the work of multilateral organizations in the fields of trade, finance, energy and transportation, which will lead to global trade fragmentation, protectionism and vicious competition.

Both sides condemned unilateral actions that bypassed the United Nations Security Council, violated international laws such as the United Nations Charter, and eroded justice and conscience, as well as unilateral measures that violated WTO rules. Restrictive measures that violate WTO rules hinder the development of free trade and have a negative impact on global industrial and supply chains. China and Russia firmly oppose this.

In addition, both sides emphasized their willingness to strengthen collaboration on multilateral platforms in professional fields, promote common positions, and oppose the politicization of the work of international organizations.


Both sides believe that cooperation within the framework of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization is an important direction for strengthening the comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination between the two countries. The two sides will continue to work together to build the Shanghai Cooperation Organization into an authoritative and influential multilateral organization so that it can play a greater role in building a new fair and stable multi-polar international pattern.

The two sides will collaborate with other member states of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization to improve organizational work, tap the potential for cooperation in the political, security, economic and cultural fields, and make the Eurasian region a common home of peace, stability, mutual trust, development and prosperity.

China fully supports Russia’s assumption of the BRICS presidency in 2024 and the success of the 16th BRICS Leaders’ Meeting.

The two sides are willing to work with other BRICS members to implement the consensus reached at previous BRICS leaders’ meetings, promote the integration of new members into the existing BRICS cooperation mechanism, and explore cooperation models among BRICS partner countries. The two sides continue to uphold the BRICS spirit, enhance the voice of the BRICS mechanism in international affairs and international agenda setting, and actively carry out “BRICS+” cooperation and BRICS peripheral dialogue.

The two sides will promote and enhance the level of collaboration among BRICS countries on the international stage, including strengthening cooperation in the fields of trade, digital economy, and public health among BRICS countries, and at the same time effectively promote the use of local currency settlement, payment tools and platforms for trade business between BRICS countries. dialogue.

Both sides believe that the role of UNESCO as a universal platform for intergovernmental cultural exchanges should be further strengthened, and mutually respectful professional dialogue on this platform should be promoted to promote efficient communication among member states, reach consensus, and enhance unity.

The two sides highly valued the constructive cooperation between China and Russia in the G20, and reiterated their willingness to continue to strengthen cooperation under this mechanism, promote the construction of inclusive economic globalization, take balanced and consensus-based actions to address prominent economic and financial challenges, promote the development of the global governance system in a more just direction, and enhance the representation of the “Global South” countries in the global economic governance system. The two sides welcomed the African Union’s formal membership in the G20 and were willing to make constructive efforts for the interests of emerging markets and developing countries.

The two sides will continue to carry out close and mutually beneficial cooperation within the framework of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, promote the comprehensive and balanced implementation of the Putrajaya Vision, and promote the construction of the Asia-Pacific community. To this end, the two sides are willing to further promote their common principled stance, promote the construction of an open world economy, promote the process of economic integration in the Asia-Pacific region, promote trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, ensure the stability and smoothness of cross-border industrial and supply chains, and promote digitalization in the Asia-Pacific region. Green transformation and sustainable development will benefit the people of the region.

Russia speaks highly of the Global Development Initiative and will continue to participate in the work of the “Group of Friends of the Global Development Initiative”. The two sides will continue to push the international community to focus on development issues, increase investment in development, deepen practical cooperation, and accelerate the implementation of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.


The two sides noted that currently, regional and global conflicts continue, the international security environment is unstable, and strategic risks continue to increase as a result of intensified confrontation between countries, including nuclear-weapon states. Both sides expressed concern about the international security situation.

Both sides reaffirmed their adherence to the “Joint Statement of the Leaders of the Five Nuclear-Weapon States on Preventing Nuclear War and Avoiding an Arms Race” issued on January 3, 2022, especially the concept that a nuclear war cannot be won or fought, and once again called on all participating countries in the joint statement to Follow this statement to the letter.

Both sides believe that all nuclear-weapon states should uphold the principles of maintaining global strategic stability, security, equality and indivisibility, and should not expand military alliances and alliances, and establish military bases near the borders of other nuclear-weapon states, especially the pre-deployment of nuclear weapons and their delivery vehicles and other strategic military facilities that infringe upon each other’s vital interests. Comprehensive measures must be taken to prevent direct military confrontation between nuclear-weapon states, focusing on eliminating the root causes of conflicts in the security field.

China and Russia support the success of the review process of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and at the same time oppose attempts to use the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and its review process for political purposes unrelated to the content of the treaty.

Both sides once again expressed serious concern about the United States’ attempts to undermine strategic stability in order to maintain its absolute military superiority, which mainly include the United States building a global anti-missile system and deploying anti-missile systems around the world and in space, and strengthening the ability of high-precision non-nuclear weapons to dismantle military operations organized by the other party. capabilities and “decapitation” strike capability, strengthen NATO’s “nuclear sharing” arrangement in Europe and provide “extended deterrence” to individual allies, and build it in Australia, a party to the “South Pacific Nuclear-Free Zone Treaty”, which may be used to ensure the implementation of the nuclear forces of the United States and the United Kingdom. infrastructure, carry out US-UK-Australia nuclear submarine cooperation, and implement plans to deploy and provide land-based short- and medium-range missiles to its allies in the Asia-Pacific and Europe.

The United States has taken action to deploy land-based intermediate-range missile systems in the Asia-Pacific region under the pretext of carrying out joint exercises with its allies that are clearly targeting China and Russia. Both sides have expressed serious concern about this. The United States also claims that it will continue to promote the above-mentioned practices and ultimately realize its intention of regular deployment of missiles around the world. Both sides expressed the strongest condemnation of the above-mentioned measures that extremely undermine regional stability and pose a direct security threat to China and Russia, and will strengthen coordination and cooperation to deal with the so-called “dual containment” policy of the United States that is non-constructive and hostile towards China and Russia.

Both sides reiterated that the Biological Weapons Convention should be fully observed, continuously strengthened, and institutionalized, and a legally binding protocol containing an effective verification mechanism should be reached. Both sides require the United States not to engage in any biomilitary activities within its borders or abroad that threaten the security of other countries and related regions.

Both sides oppose attempts by individual countries to use outer space for armed confrontation, and oppose the development of security policies and activities aimed at gaining military advantage and defining and using outer space as a “combat territory.” The two sides advocated launching negotiations on a legally binding multilateral instrument as soon as possible on the basis of the China-Russia Draft Treaty on the Prevention of the Placement of Weapons in Outer Space and the Use or Threat of Use of Force against Outer Space Objects, in order to prevent an arms race in outer space, the weaponization of outer space and prevent Provide fundamental and reliable protection against the use or threat of use of force against outer space objects or with the help of outer space objects. In order to maintain world peace, ensure the equal and indivisible security of all countries, and improve the predictability and sustainability of countries’ exploration and peaceful use of outer space, the two sides agree to implement international initiatives/political commitments on a global scale not to be the first to deploy weapons in outer space.

Both sides are committed to achieving the goal of a world free of chemical weapons and are deeply concerned about the politicization of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Both sides pointed out that the Chemical Weapons Convention, as an important mechanism in the field of disarmament and non-proliferation, should be fully observed. Both sides urge Japan to comprehensively, completely and accurately implement the “Destruction Plan for Japanese Abandoned Chemical Weapons in the Territory of the People’s Republic of China after 2022” and destroy chemical weapons abandoned in China as soon as possible.

The two sides will continue to coordinate actions on chemical weapons disarmament and non-proliferation issues, commit to restoring the authority of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, and promote its work to return to a non-politicized technical track.

The two sides reaffirmed their compliance with the export control obligations stipulated in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the Convention on the Prohibition of Biological Weapons and the Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, and opposed the substitution of hypocritical political goals for the original intention of non-proliferation and the politicization and weaponization of non-proliferation export controls. serve the country’s short-sighted interests and implement illegal unilateral restrictive measures.

Both sides reaffirmed their commitment to promoting the comprehensive and effective implementation of the UN General Assembly resolution “Promoting International Cooperation in the Field of Peaceful Uses of International Security”.

The two sides are willing to deepen cooperation in combating international terrorism and extremism, and adopt a “zero tolerance” attitude towards the “three evil forces” including the “East Turkistan Islamic Movement”; at the same time, they are willing to further strengthen cooperation in combating transnational organized crime, corruption, illegal trafficking in drugs, psychotropic substances and their precursors, and jointly address other new challenges and threats.

Both sides attach great importance to the issue of artificial intelligence and are willing to strengthen exchanges and cooperation on the development, security and governance of artificial intelligence. Russia welcomes China’s proposal of the Global Artificial Intelligence Governance Initiative, and China welcomes Russia’s proposal of governance guidelines in the field of artificial intelligence. The two sides agreed to establish and make good use of a regular consultation mechanism to strengthen cooperation in artificial intelligence and open source technology, coordinate positions when reviewing artificial intelligence regulatory issues on international platforms, and support international conferences on artificial intelligence held by the other party.

The two sides reaffirmed their unanimous stance on maintaining security in the field of information and communication technology, and agreed to collaborate to address various cybersecurity risks, including those related to artificial intelligence. The two sides encourage the world to jointly promote the healthy development of artificial intelligence, share the dividends of artificial intelligence, strengthen international cooperation in artificial intelligence capacity building, properly deal with the military application of artificial intelligence, and support cooperation in the United Nations, the International Telecommunications Union, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, and the International Organization for Standardization. and other mechanism platforms to carry out exchanges and cooperation on artificial intelligence. Oppose the use of technology monopoly and unilateral coercive measures to maliciously obstruct the development of artificial intelligence in other countries and block the global artificial intelligence supply chain.

Both sides affirmed the leading role of the United Nations in formulating common rules in the field of international information security, and supported the United Nations 2021-2025 Open Working Group on Information Security as an irreplaceable global negotiation platform in this field and to carry out regular work. The two sides pointed out that new and responsible national codes of conduct in the information space should be formulated. In particular, the formulation of universal legal instruments can lay the foundation for the establishment of an international legal mediation mechanism in the information space aimed at preventing conflicts between countries, and is conducive to building a peaceful, open, and a safe, stable, interoperable and accessible information and communication technology environment. Both sides believe that United Nations General Assembly Resolution 74/247 should be implemented and the formulation of a comprehensive international convention on combating the use of information and communications technology for criminal purposes should be completed within the framework of the United Nations Ad Hoc Committee.

Both sides support the creation of a multilateral, democratic, and transparent global Internet governance system on the premise of ensuring the security and stability of each country’s network system.

Both sides are willing to strengthen cooperation under the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, BRICS and other multilateral mechanisms. The competent authorities of both sides are willing to deepen bilateral cooperation in the field of international information security within the framework of existing legal treaties.


The two sides took measures to address climate change and reaffirmed their adherence to the goals, principles and institutional framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Paris Agreement, especially the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. Both sides emphasized that financial support provided by developed countries to developing countries is crucial to slowing down the increase in global average temperature and adapting to the negative impacts of global climate change. Both sides oppose erecting trade barriers on the grounds of combating climate change and linking climate issues with threats to international peace and security.

The two sides appreciated the “Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework” adopted at the 15th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity chaired by China, and are willing to promote the harmonious development of man and nature and contribute to global sustainable development.

Both sides are determined to increase efforts to control plastic waste pollution on the basis of respecting the national conditions and sovereignty of each country, and work with all parties to formulate legally binding instruments to deal with environmental pollution (including marine pollution) caused by plastic waste.

Both sides expressed serious concern about Japan’s discharge of Fukushima nuclear-contaminated water into the ocean, and demanded that Japan safely dispose of Fukushima nuclear-contaminated water in a responsible manner, accept strict international monitoring, and respect the requirements of relevant countries for independent monitoring.


Russia positively evaluates China’s objective and fair stance on the Ukrainian issue and agrees with the view that the crisis must be resolved on the basis of full and complete compliance with the United Nations Charter.

Russia welcomes China’s willingness to play a constructive role in resolving the Ukrainian crisis through political and diplomatic channels.

Both sides pointed out that all actions that would delay the war and further escalate the conflict must be stopped, and called for preventing the crisis from getting out of control. Both sides emphasized that dialogue is a good way to resolve the Ukraine crisis.

Both sides believe that in order to steadily resolve the Ukraine crisis, it is necessary to eliminate the root causes of the crisis, adhere to the principle of indivisibility of security, and take into account the legitimate security interests and concerns of all countries.


Both sides believe that people of all countries share a common destiny, and no country should seek its own security at the expense of the security of other countries. Both sides expressed concern about the practical challenges to international and regional security and pointed out that in the current geopolitical context, it is necessary to explore the establishment of a sustainable security system in the Eurasian space based on the principle of equal and indivisible security.

Both sides call on relevant countries and organizations to stop adopting confrontational policies and interfering in other countries’ internal affairs, destroying existing security structures, building “small courts and high walls” between countries, provoking regional tensions, and advocating confrontation between camps.

Both sides oppose cobbling together a closed and exclusive bloc structure in Asia and the Pacific, especially a military alliance against any third party. Both sides pointed out that the US “Indo-Pacific Strategy” and NATO’s destructive moves in the Asia-Pacific region have had a negative impact on peace and stability in the region.

Both sides expressed serious concern about the consequences of the US-UK-Australia Trilateral Security Partnership (AUKUS) on strategic stability in the Asia-Pacific region in all areas.

The two sides will strengthen coordination on deepening cooperation with ASEAN, continue to work together to consolidate ASEAN’s central position in the multilateral architecture of the Asia-Pacific region, and enhance the effectiveness of ASEAN’s leading mechanisms such as the East Asia Summit and the ASEAN Regional Forum.

Russia supports China and ASEAN countries in jointly safeguarding peace and stability in the South China Sea. Both sides believe that the South China Sea issue should be resolved through negotiation and consultation by the countries directly concerned, and resolutely oppose the intervention of external forces in the South China Sea issue. Russia supports China and ASEAN countries in fully and effectively implementing the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea and welcomes the early conclusion of the Code of Conduct in the South China Sea.

Both sides oppose the United States’ hegemonic behavior of changing the balance of power in Northeast Asia by expanding its military power and assembling military blocs. The United States adheres to the Cold War mentality and camp confrontation model, puts the security of “small groups” above regional security and stability, and endangers the security of all countries in the region. The United States should stop such behavior.

Both sides oppose the deterrent actions of the United States and its allies in the military field, provoking confrontation with the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and possibly triggering armed conflicts, thereby exacerbating tensions on the Korean Peninsula. Both sides urge the United States to take effective measures to ease military tensions and create favorable conditions, abandon intimidation, sanctions and repression, and push North Korea and other relevant countries to restart the negotiation process on the basis of mutual respect and accommodation of each other’s security concerns. Both sides reiterated that political and diplomatic means are the only way to resolve all issues on the peninsula, and called on the international community to support the constructive joint initiatives of China and Russia.

Both sides advocate maintaining peace and stability in the Middle East and oppose interference in the internal affairs of regional countries. Both sides support a comprehensive, just and lasting solution to the Palestinian issue on the basis of recognized international law with the “two-state solution” as a key element, and look forward to seeing the establishment of an independent Palestinian state based on the 1967 borders, with East Jerusalem as its capital, and coexisting in peace and security with Israel. State of Palestine.

Both sides support the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of Syria and Libya, and promote a political settlement process led and owned by the people of these two countries.

The two sides will actively cooperate to consolidate security in the Gulf region and promote regional countries to enhance mutual trust and achieve sustainable development.

The two sides are willing to strengthen coordination on Afghan affairs at the bilateral level and under multilateral mechanisms, and promote Afghanistan to become an independent, neutral, unified and peaceful country, free from the harm of terrorism and drugs, and living in harmony with all neighboring countries. Both sides attach great importance to and support the positive and constructive role played by regional platforms such as the Foreign Ministers’ Meeting of Afghanistan’s Neighboring Countries, the “Moscow Format” consultation on Afghanistan, the China-Russia-Pakistan-Iran mechanism, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization in the political settlement of the Afghan issue.

The two sides emphasized that the United States and NATO, as the parties responsible for the 20-year invasion and occupation of Afghanistan, should not again attempt to deploy military facilities to Afghanistan and its surrounding areas. Instead, they should bear the main responsibility for Afghanistan’s current economic and people’s livelihood difficulties and bear the main expenditures for Afghanistan’s reconstruction, and take all necessary measures to lift the freeze on Afghanistan’s national assets.

Both sides believe that the Collective Security Treaty Organization and the Commonwealth of Independent States play an important role in maintaining regional stability and combating other cross-border threats and challenges such as international terrorism, illegal drug production and trafficking, and organized crime. The two sides emphasized that China and the Collective Security Treaty Organization have the potential for cooperation in maintaining peace and security in Eurasia and jointly responding to external challenges.

In order to develop friendly, stable and prosperous relations with neighboring countries, the two sides will continue to carry out mutually beneficial cooperation with countries in Central Asia and strengthen collaboration within international organizations and multilateral mechanisms such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia, and the United Nations.

Both sides agreed that peace, stability and true independence of African countries are the foundation for the development and prosperity of the African continent. The two sides called for maintaining a good and healthy atmosphere for international cooperation with Africa. To this end, the two sides will continue to strengthen communication and collaboration on African affairs and contribute to supporting African countries to solve African problems in an African way.

The two sides will continue to strengthen strategic coordination on Latin American and Caribbean affairs. The two sides hope to strengthen cooperation in various fields with relevant countries and mechanisms in Latin America and the Caribbean, including but not limited to the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Pacific Alliance (AP), the Andean Community (CAN), the Inter-American Bolivian Community Regional organizations such as the Livar Alliance (ALBA), the Central American Integration System (SICA), and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), as well as international organizations such as the United Nations, the G20, and the BRICS.

Both sides believe that the Arctic should continue to be a place of peace, stability, constructive dialogue and mutually beneficial cooperation, and should not cause military and political tensions in the region.

China News, 16 May 2024

Investigative historian Eric Zuesse’s latest book, AMERICA’S EMPIRE OF EVIL: Hitler’s Posthumous Victory, and Why the Social Sciences Need to Change, is about how America took over the world after World War II in order to enslave it to U.S.-and-allied billionaires. Their cartels extract the world’s wealth by control of not only their ‘news’ media but the social ‘sciences’ — duping the public.
Eric Zuesse (blogs at

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